In this part we will explore the meaning of the 66th Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.

 Shloka 66
Svakshah Svangah Shataanando Nandir Jyotir-Ganeshvarah     |
Vijitatma Vidheyatma Satkeertish Chinnasamshayah             ||66||

He has beautiful and benevolent eyes. He has a celestial body that is so enchanting. He is of Infinite Bliss and is forever delighted. He is the Lord of the luminaries like Sun, Moon and Stars which derive their source of light from Him. He is easily conquered by His devotees and He willingly becomes subservient to fulfil His devotees’ wishes. He is of true fame and is Supreme. He dispels all doubts of His devotees.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1. Svakshah
  2. Svangah
  3. Shataanandah
  4. Nandih
  5. JyotirGaneshvarah
  6. Vijitaatmaa
  7. VidheyAtma or AvidheyAtma
  8. Satkeertih
  9. Chinnasamshayah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1. Svakshah – The Beautiful-Eyed

RamaThis Nama is a combination of words ‘Su’ and ‘Akshah’ meaning ‘good eyes’. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Shobhane Pundareekaabhe Akshinee asya iti – He has beautiful eyes like the Lotus flower and hence He is called Svakshah’. We have already seen similar Namas describing the beauty of Lord’s eyes as Pushkaraakshah, Pundarikakshahah, Kamalanayanah and Aravindaakshah, all of them referring to His Lotus like eyes.

In Srimad Ramayanam, Hanuman describes the attributes of Lord Rama to Sita Devi to dispel her doubts about Him upon His first encounter with Her:
रामः कमल पत्र अक्षः सर्व भूत मनो हरः |Sundara Kandam 5.35.7
Meaning: Lord Rama has eyes resembling the petals of a Lotus. He has a charm that attracts the hearts of all living beings.

He interprets this Nama in a similar context and explains that Bhagavan has these beautiful eyes which are thoroughly proficient in the art of enjoying the nectarine Ocean of Her beauty.  The hue of Bhagavan’s eyes is described as reddish, and Piratti’s eyes are dark-hued.  The explanation for this is that Bhagavan’s eyes are reddish as it reflects the beautiful reddish complexion of Piratti due to His continued loving gaze at Piratti, and Her eyes are dark because She is always enjoying the beautiful dark complexion of Bhagavan.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives reference from Divya Prabhandam with Thiruppaan Azhwar’s Pasuram:
‘Kariya Agip pudai parandu milirndu Sevvari Odi ap-periavaaya Kangal ennaip pedaimai Seidanave –  Lord’s dark wide eyes with reddish hue, with radiance, O’ those big beautiful eyes have me in daze’.

Sri Satyadevo Vashishtha gives the interpretation that Bhagavan is Svakshah because He views the whole Universe seated in the Sun, and He is the eye of everything that exists.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains that Lord Vishnu is Svakshah as He is brilliant and beautiful-eyed.

  1. Svangah – The beautiful bodied

RamaAs in the previous Nama this is a combination of Su meaning good and Angah meaning limbs or parts of the body. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Shobhanaani Angaani asya iti Svangah – He has beautiful limbs hence He is called Svangah’.

We have seen similar Namas like Shubaangah,  Hemaangah and Varaangah denoting His beautiful limbs and enchanting body.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is that He has a celestial body that is worthy of being admired even by Lakshmi. 

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to NammAzhwar’s Pasuram in Thiruvai Mozhi (6.10.10) to explain Lord’s Soundaryam – “Agala gillen iraiyum endru Alarmel Mangai urai Maarban” meaning “O’ Lord you bear the inseparable Alarmel Mangai (Lakshmi seated on a Lotus) on Your chest”.

In Sundara Kandam, Valmiki gives a very detailed description of every aspect of Lord Rama’s beauty through 16 Shlokas in Hanuman’s words (5.35.7 to 22).

We also have Thiruppaan Azhwar’s beautiful description of Lord Ranganatha in his Amalanadipiraan.  His enchanting beauty makes Thiruppaan Azhwar to conclude with the declaration:
Kondal vannanaik kovalanay vennai unda vaayan en ullam kavarndhaanai
Andarkon ani arangan en amudhinaik kanda kangal matrondrinaik kanave
Meaning: The dark-hued Lord is the One who came as a cowherd lad and stole butter. He is the Lord of Gods and of Arangam also. He has stolen my heart.  After seeing my Lord and experiencing ambrosial delight, my eyes will see nothing else.”. 

Swami Desikan describes Lord Ranganatha’s beauty in Bhagavad Dhyana Sopanam which has many parallels to Thiruppaan Azhwar’s Amalanaadipiraan.

Sri Satyadevo Vashishtha derives his interpretation using the root agi – gatau – to go, to move around, and gives the explanation – Shobhanaani angaani – gamanaani yasya sa Svangah – He who has beautiful paths or gaits is Svangah.  Since Bhagavan has created this Universe in which all beings have the capability to move around and perform their functions, He is called Svangah.

Swami ChinmayAnanda interprets this Nama to mean that the Lord has beautiful limbs and He is most handsome, captivating the hearts of all His loving devotees.

  1. Shataanandah – He is the source of Infinite Bliss

vishnu1Shata means hundred though the context here is Infinite. Ananda means joy or ecstasy. Hence Shataanandah means Infinite joy or Infinite bliss.

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Eka eva Paramananda UpaadhiBhedaat Shatadhaa Bhidyate iti – The One Supreme Bliss becomes many through a variety of agencies and experiences hence He is called Shataanandah – source of countless joys’. He quotes from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (4.3.32) which says ‘Etasya eva Anandasya Anyaani bhootaani Maatraam upajeevanti – Compared to His Bliss, the bliss of all other beings is but a minute fraction’. In other words He is the sum total of all the countless joys experienced by all beings of the Universe.

Sri Parasara Bhattar continues with the same context of Inseparable nature of Bhagavan and Lakshmi and the resultant bliss. He explains that the Supreme has boundless Bliss which is forever flowing due to the mutual love of Piratti and Bhagavan.  

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri explains that Anandam or bliss is of different kinds for different beings, thus Anandam varies depending on the enjoyer of Anandam.  The jnani who is disinterested in worldly affairs derives the great Anandam from meditating on the Lord while those who are interested in worldly pleasures derive Anandam when their desires are fulfilled.  All these bits and pieces of Anandam that every being derives is what flows from Him who is the Supreme Bliss, Shataanandah.  Sri Shastri gives the reference from Taittiriya Upanishad 2.8.3 to support this interpretation:
te ye Shatam manushya-gandharvanaam Anandah
sa eko Deva-Gandharvaanaam Anandah
Srotriyasya cakamahatasya  |
Meaning: A hundred fold of the bliss of the human Gandharvas is the unit measure of the bliss of the celestial Gandharvas. This is the same as the bliss of one who is well versed in Vedas and who is free from desires.

Sri Satyadevo Vashishtha gives yet another view of the Infinite Bliss of Bhagavan.  Other than Him, each creature feels pleasure when it is in some particular environment, and feels pain when it is in a different environment.  Thus, a fish feels pleasure when in water, and feels pain when outside water.  For human beings, it is exactly the reverse.  For birds, it is a different kind of medium.  But for Him, His Bliss is independent of any constraint, and thus He is of Infinite Bliss.  The Anandam of everything else flows from the One and Only source of true Anandam – Shataanandah.

Swami ChinmayAnanda describes Shataanandah as One Who divides Himself into Infinite Jivas and manifesting in them through different equipment and experiences all of them.

The Dharma Chakram writer explains the concept of Peranandam starting with the little Anandam of the immobile things such as plants, which derive their pleasure through the sense of touch alone. The worms derive their pleasure through the sense of touch and taste. Slightly more evolved beings such as the ants derive their pleasure from the sense of touch, taste, and smell.   The bees derive their pleasure from the sense of touch, taste, smell, and sight.  The animals derive their pleasure from the additional sense of hearing.  Man derives his pleasure from the mind in addition to all that.  Yet ordinary people seek material pleasures with all these gifts, and end up enjoying the transient pleasures, just as the fish enjoys its sense of taste and falls prey to the fisherman’s hook.  Only a true Yogi reaches the next level, that of AtmAnandam. 

  1. Nandih – He is in Eternal delight

ananthasayanamThe word ‘Nand’ means to be happy. Based on this Sri Adi Sankara defines this as ‘Paramaananda Vigraho Nandih – He is the embodiment of Supreme Bliss and hence He is called Nandih’. This is in continuation of the previous Nama where He is described as the sum total of the countless joys experienced by all beings and hence He is the complete collection of all joys and is aptly termed as Nandih.

Sri Parasara Bhattar says that Bhagavan is Nandih because He is at all times and in all places and in all ways enjoying the company of Sri and so He is in eternal delight. His constant and inseparable association with Sri is the reason for His constant delight.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri explains that His Anandam is such that the humans and the Devas can look to Him to derive the true Anandam. He is the Bestower of their true Anandam.  

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains that Lord Vishnu’s nature is that of Infinite Bliss and hence He is Nandih.

  1. Jyotir-Ganeshvarah – The Lord of the luminaries

visnu2This Nama can be split into three words viz. Jyoti, Gana and Ishvarah. Jyoti refers to a source of light and here it refers to a luminary body such as Sun, Moon or Star. Gana is a collection or a group and Ishvarah means Lord. So on this basis Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Jyotirganaanaam Ishvarah Jyotirganeshvarah – He is the Lord of all luminary objects hence He is called Jyotirganeshvarah’.

In the Katha Upanishad (2.5.15) and Mundaka Upanishad (2.10) it says:
na tatra Suryo bhaati na candra-taarakam, nemaa vidyuto bhaanti, kuto’yam agniḥ;
tameva bhaantam anubhaati sarvaṁ tasya bhaasaa sarvam idaṁ vibhaati (15)
Meaning: The Sun does not shine there, nor does the Moon, nor the Stars, nor the lightnings and much less this Fire. When He shines, everything shines after Him; by His light, all these shine.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 15, Verse 12), Lord Krishna says:
Yadaaditya gatam tejah Jagat bhaasayate akhilam                |
Yac chandramasi yac chaagnau tat tejo viddhi maamakam ||
Meaning: Mine is the effulgence from which the Sun illuminates the world, mine is the light which feeds the Moon and the Fire.

It is His Energy that shines out as light from all that gives light. The simple meaning of the Nama is that He Who is the leader of the luminaries is JyotriGaneshvarah.  Sri Parasara Bhattar refers to the host of Nitya-Suris like AdiSesha, Vishvaksena, Garuda etc., who are constantly at the service of Bhagavan and Piratti as luminaries. He gives reference from the Purusha Suktam – ‘Maricinaam padamicchanti vedhasah – Wise men desire to attain the world of the radiant souls’, referring the world of Nitya Suris as the world of radiant souls.   Marici here refers to those who are radiant.  Another interpretation is that even Brahma desires for the position of Marici.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi’s first Pasuram (1.1.1) to explain JyotirGaneshvarah as the Lord of luminaries:
உயர்வற வுயர்நலம் முடையவன் யவனவன்
மயர்வற மதிநலம் அருளினன் யவனவன்
அயர்வறும் அமரர்கள் அதிபதி யவனவன்
துயரறு சுடரடி தொழுதெழென் மனனே.
Meaning: Arise, O heart, worship the feet of the One, who is higher than the highest good, who is the Lord of the ever-wakeful celestials (Nitya Suris), who dispels ignorance and grants pure knowledge. 

The Dharma Chakram writer gives the analogy that just as a person who does not have eyesight cannot see the light around him, one who does not have jnana will not be able to see the Jyotir-Ganeshvarah residing in him.  One has to first rid oneself of the darkness of kama, krodha, etc. within, before one can see the light inside.  This is the lesson to draw from this mantra.

  1. VijitAtma – He who is easily conquered by His devotees

sri-rama-guhanThe word ‘Vijita’ means controlled or conquered, so VijitAtma is one who has conquered his mind. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Vijita Atma Mano yena Sa VijitAtma – He has subdued or controlled His mind hence He is called VijitAtma’. It is much more difficult to control one’s mind than control the external factors. In this sense Bhagavan has conquered Himself or His mind which is steady and unwavering.

Sri Parasara Bhattar has interpreted the Namas 608 to 625 in the context of Bhagavan’s association with Lakshmi Piratti.  Now he proceeds to interpret the next few Namas in terms of His extreme Saushilyam (amiability). Sri Bhattar’s interpretation is that Bhagavan revels in being conquered by His devotees; that is His real nature. When a devotee surrenders unto Him with devotion and sincerity, He easily submits to the wishes of His devotee.

You may recall that Krishna, at the beginning of the MahaBharata, had made the promise that He won’t take to weapons during the war. During the course of the War, Bhishma is tricked into blessing Draupadi as ‘Dheerga Sumangali Bhava’ while Bhishma had earlier promised Duryodhana that he will kill all the Pandavas.  He was distraught that he had to either break his vow or revoke his blessing and hence confronted Krishna for landing him in that situation.

bhishma-wheelKrishna replied thus, “Your Vow was for Adharma and your blessings were for Dharma. So act in accordance with Dharma”. He consoled, Bhishma and said, “I know how difficult it would be for a person like you to break your vow. In order to feel your suffering, I too shall break my Vow once in this war and you will be the reason for that”.

Therefore, Krishna in spite of his Vow of not to fight in the war lifted the cart wheel and rushed to attack Bhishma. He told Bhishma that He didn’t need any weapon to kill him and only a cart wheel was enough for him.

This episode beautifully illustrates how Bhagavan is prepared to do anything to keep a Bhakta’s word and also keep His word given to a Bhakta.

DamodaraSri V.V. Ramanujan gives reference from NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi (1.3.1):
பத்துடை யடியவர்க் கெளியவன், பிறர்களுக் கரிய
வித்தகன் மலர்மகள் விரும்பும்நம் அரும்பெற லடிகள்
மத்துறு கடை வெண்ணெய் களவினில் உரவிடை யாப்புண்டு
எத்திறம் உரலினோ டிணைந்திருந் தேங்கிய எளிவே.
Meaning: The Lord makes it easy for His devotees to reach him through Love and devotion and makes it hard for others to near Him. He is inseparable with Lakshmi seated on a Lotus, whom He bears on His chest. O’ how easily He allowed Himself to be bound to the mortar for stealing butter from the churning pail with His pleading innocent looks.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri adds that Bhagavan possesses everything there is to possess, and so He has nothing to desire, and thus He is of a mind that is absolutely controlled. 

The Dharma Chakram writer indicates that that meditation on this Nama of Bhagavan will lead one to exercise better control over mind, and ultimately to realisation of God.

  1. VidheyAtma – He who is of a submissive nature (to His devotees).

shabariSri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as A-VidheyAtma and describes this as ‘Na kenaapi Vidheya Atma swaroopam asya iti AvidheyAtma’ – His nature is unfathomable and no one knows His true nature (unless liberated).  He is not subservient to anyone else hence He is called AvidheyAtma.

Vidheya means subservient and as mentioned in the previous Nama, Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama in terms of Bhagavan being subservient to His devotees’ wishes and notes that He enjoys being subservient to their wishes. Sri Bhattar explains that it is Bhagavan’s essential nature to be at the disposal of His devotees to such an extent that they can easily command Him to do whatever they want. He gives the example of Thirumazhisai Azhwar’s command to Sri Vishnu (Bhujangasayana Perumal in Thiruvekka).  When his disciple Kanikannan was asked to leave the town, Thirumazhisai Azhwar also decided to accompany him.

Azhwar went to the temple and prayed wholeheartedly with tears in his eyes and requested the Lord also to come along with them, as he cannot think of living without the Lord.
கணிகண்ணன் போகின்றான் காமரு பூங்கச்சி மணிவண்ணா! நீ கிடக்க வேண்டா செந்நாப் புலவனும் போகின்றேன் நீயும் உன்றன் பை நாகப்பாயை சுருட்டிக் கொள்
Meaning: Kanikkannan is going out of Kanchi Manivanna, I am also leaving with him. You don’t have to lie down here anymore;  Please you also roll your “Naagam” (serpent bed) and follow me”.

Thirumazhisai Azhwar commanded the Lord to pack up His snake bed and leave town and the Lord obeyed as He was told.

Later when King sought forgiveness and invited them back, the Azhwar commanded the Lord as:
கணிகண்ணன் போக்கொழிந்தான்  காமரு பூங்கச்சி மணிவண்ணா! நீ கிடக்க வேண்டும் செந்நாப் புலவனும் போக்கொழிந்தேன்  நீயும் உன்றன் பை நாகப்பாயை சுருட்டிக் கொள்
Meaning: Kanikkannan is going back to Kanchi Manivanna, I am also going back with him. You don’t have to lie down here anymore;  Please you too roll your “naagam” (serpent bed) and follow me” and lo and behold, the Lord followed the Azhwar with the snake rolled and tucked under his arms back to the Temple.

The Lord once again obeyed the command of the Azhwar. Thus, Lord is subservient to His to His true devotees.

Another instance of His submissive nature is demonstrated when the Lord went to visit one of His devotees, Bhakta Pundalika in Pandharpur. When the Lord reached Pundalika’s home, Pundalika was serving food to his elderly parents. So Pundalika passed a brick towards the Lord and asked Him to wait. The Lord did as He was asked and stood there with his hands on His hips, waiting for Pundalika to return. This is the posture of Lord Vitthala in the Pandharpur Temple.

Simlarly, Lord Krishna as Arjuna’s charioteer, obeyed the command of Arjuna when Arjuna ordered Krishna to take the chariot to position it in between the two armies at the start of the MahaBharata war –‘Senayorubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me Acyuta!’. 

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives reference of Thirumangain Azhwar’s Peria Thirumozhi (11.5.5) Pasuram where the Lord Krishna allows Himself to be bound to the mortar by Yashoda for stealing butter –  ‘Vannak karum kuzhal Aycciyal mottundu kannik kurum kayitral kattundaan’. 

Sri Satyadevo Vashishtha gives the example from the Yajur Veda (15.54):
Udbudhya svagne pratijagrhi tavam ishtaapurte samsrjeyAmayam ca
asiman sadhasthe adyutarasmin viśve devā yajamānaśca sīdata||
Meaning: Awake Agni, be attentive to give your seasonal sweetness, May all the Devas sit with the worshiper in the meeting place.  

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives the interpretation – Vidheyah sevaka Atmano – Jiva yasya iti VidheyAtma – He who has all the Jivas subservient to Him.

The Dharma Chakram writer notes that when a person has controlled one’s own indriyas and manas, then there is nothing else this person needs or wants, and there will be no need to be subservient to anything or anyone. 

The Story of Shri Santhopa Pawar

Shri Santhopa Pawar was an ardent devotee of Lord Vitthal (Vithoba) of Pandharpur. Shri Santhopa guided his many disciples in ‘Bhagawatha Dharma’ and preached them to meditate on Lord Vitthal and chant His Nama at all times. He assured them that their chanting of Lord Vitthal’s glory will remove their troubles and lead them to the Lotus feet of Panduranga, which is the only permanent solace in this Samsara.

Once all the disciples wanted to have Darshan of Lord Vitthal together with their Guru Shri Santhopa Pawar. When they expressed their desire to Shri Pawar, he gladly accepted their request and all of them started walking towards Pandharpur. Pawar’s presence enhanced the enthusiasm of all the disciples and they chanted the name of Vitthala in high pitch.

As they were nearing Pandharpur, heavy rain started lashing and it was impossible for them to even to take a step against the heavy down pour. Shri Pawar cheered them up and asked them to trust the Omni-Potent Lord Vitthala, whole-heartedly. As they reached the banks of Chandrabagha river, it was swirling with heavy currents and none of the boatmen were ready to cross the roaring river.

All the disciples became very upset and some of them got perturbed due to that situation. But Pawar Maharaj did not give up his faith on the ‘Kamala Nayana’ Panduranga. He sang ‘Abhangs’ with great devotion and his eyes too started pouring tears out of love and faith.

Suddenly a very big bridge emerged in the river that stretched from one end of the bank of the river Chandrabagha to the other end of the bank. Shri Pawar heard a divine voice commanding him to cross the river using that bridge. It gave him immense bliss. He advised all his disciples to follow him and walk on that bridge to reach the other side of the river. All the devotees screamed with joy on seeing the new bridge. They thought it was submerged under the river and Shri Pawar’s spiritual power brought it out. They happily walked on the bridge, chanting Vitthala Vitthala Panduranga.

koormaAfter reaching the other bank of Chandrabagha, he eagerly turned back to look at the bridge. He couldn’t believe what he witnessed and was overcome by emotion. Tears of joy rolled uncontrollably from his eyes.  It was really not a bridge but it was Lord Vitthala who took the form of a big size Koorma (Tortoise) Avataar to help Shri Pawar and his disciples to cross the river. Upon realising this, Shri Pawar could not control himself and fell to the ground. He got submerged in the abundant mercy of Lord Vitthal.

Due to Lord Vitthal’s mercy rain, soon the rain also stopped. All the disciples were overjoyed and reached the Mahadwaar with Shri Pawar and started ‘Nama Sankeertan’. All of them had a divine darshan of Lord Vitthal and received the Lord’s blessings.

The Lord becomes subservient to His true devotees and He allowed all His devotees to walk on Him. Such is His nature that He enjoys submitting to the wishes of His true devotees.

  1. Satkeertih – He is of true fame and is Supreme

Lord Vishnu and Goddess LaxmiSri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Satee Avitathaa Keertih asya asti iti Satkeertih – His fame is True, Eternal and Supreme, hence He is called Satkeertih’. As His fame is based on His Dharma and not on material wealth, it will live forever.

Sri Parasara Bhattar associates Bhagavan’s keerti arising from ‘Saulabhya Sausilya sattvena asya ati-mahati keertih iti Sat-keertih’. His fame is derived from Him being subservient to His devotees. No matter how well we praise His keerti, it will be an under-statement and a fraction of His true renown.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to NammAzhwar’s ‘Nigar il pugazhaay’ – He whose keerti has no comparison. Swami ChinmayAnanda associates Bhagavan’s Satkeerti with His being the Consort of Lakshmi.

The Dharma Chakram writer describes two kinds of fame – the fame that comes from material wealth, official status, etc., and the fame that comes because one follows the path of Dharma.  The former type of keerti is temporary and transient – one loses it as soon as the wealth or the position that brought the fame are eventually gone. But the followers of the path of Dharma – such as Dharmaputra or Harishchandra – do not ever lose their keerti; the world praises them forever.  It is the keerti that comes out of following the path of Dharma and the worship of Bhagavan that one should follow in order to realize Satkeertih, the mantra contained in this Nama.

Sri Satyadevo Vashishtha explains that He is Sat-keerti because it is only by constantly worshipping Him and singing His praise can one attain true keerti; all the other keertis attained through any other means are not Sat-keerti. 

  1. Chinna-Samshayah – The Dispeller of all doubts

krishnanarayanaChinna means smashed or pulverised and Samshaya means a doubt or question and hence Chinna-Samshayah means dispeller of doubts. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Karatala Aamalakavat sarvam saakshaat kritavatah kvaapi samshayo naasti iti ChinnaSamshayah – He realises everything like a fruit in His palm, He has no doubts about anything and hence He is called ChinnaSamshayah’. When the fruit is actually within your hand there is no need to speculate about the properties of the fruit because everything is clearly visible and under personal control.  Similarly everything is clearly perceptible to Bhagavan and He has no doubt or uncertainty over anything hence He is justifiably called ‘ChinnaSamshayah’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains as ‘Chinnah Samshaya bhaktanam yena iti Chinna-Samshayah – He by dispels the doubts of His devotees and hence He is called Chinna-Samshayah.  

Sri Parasara Bhattar comments that because of His reputation of being endowed with extreme Sausilyam and Saulabhyam, all doubts that anyone may have about Him – such as:  “Can He be easily known or is it difficult to realize Him?”, “Can He be easily pleased or is it difficult to please Him?”, “Can He be easily approached or is it difficult to approach Him”, etc. – stand easily dispelled.  

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives reference from the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 6, Verse 39) where Arjuna says:
etat me samshayam Krishna chhettumarhasi asheshatah    |
tvat ananyah samshayasya asya chhetta na hyupapadyate ||
Meaning: This is my doubt O Kṛiṣhṇa, and I ask You to dispel it completely. But for Yourself, there is no one to be found who can remove this doubt.

Swami ChinmayAnanda points out that after Lord Krishna gave the Gita Upadesham to Arjuna, Arjuna declared in Chapter 18, Verse 73:
nasto mohah smrtir labdha tvat-prasadan mayacyuta
sthito ‘smi gata-sandehah karisye vacanam tava  ||
Meaning: My dear Kṛiṣhṇa, O infallible one, my illusion has been dispelled completely. By your grace, realisation has been restored to me; I am now firm and free from any doubt and I shall execute Your command.

Sri Satyadevo Vashishtha observes that the lack of any doubt in Bhagavan is revealed in all His acts right from Creation to all the way up to Pralaya or Dissolution.


Svakshah Svangah Shataanando Nandir Jyotir-Ganeshvarah     |
Vijitatma Vidheyatma Satkeertish Chinnasamshayah             ||66||

Rama 5He has beautiful dark wide eyes with a reddish hue like that of a Lotus flower and hence He is called Svakshah. He has beautiful limbs and a charming celestial body that is so enchanting, so He is Svangah. He is Shataanandah, of Infinite Bliss as the mutual love of Piratti and Bhagavan is boundless and eternal. He is Nandih as He is forever delighted. He is the Lord of the luminaries like Sun, Moon and Stars which derive their source of light from Him and hence He is Jyotir-Ganeshvarah.

He is easily conquered by His devotees and hence He is VijitAtma. He willingly becomes subservient to fulfill His devotees’ wishes and so He is VidheyAtma. He is of true fame and is Supreme and hence He is Sat-keertih. He dispels all doubts of His devotees and hence called Chinna-Samshayah.



This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.



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