In this part we will explore the meaning of the 69th Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.

Shloka 69
Kaalaneminiha Veerah Shurah Shaurijaneshvarah       |
TrilokAtma Trilokeshah Keshavah Keshiha Harih   ||69||

He destroyed the demon Kaalanemi and He is Valiant who conquered all His enemies.  He was born as Krishna in the Shura dynasty and is the Lord of the Valiant Celestial Heroes. He pervades all the three worlds and all the three state of experience – waking, dream and deep-sleep. He is the Lord of the three worlds and is Supreme. He is the source of the rays emanating from the luminous bodies such as the Sun which are called Keshas and He is composed of the energy of Brahma and Siva within Him. He is the slayer of the demon Keshi and He is the destroyer of sorrows of His devotees.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1. Kaalaneminiha
  2. Veerah
  3. Shurah
  4. Shaurijaneshvarah
  5. TrilokAtma
  6. Trilokeshah
  7. Keshavah
  8. Keshiha
  9. Harih

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1. Kaalaneminiha – The destroyer of the wheel of Time

Krishna-kills-Kamsa1Kaalanemi was a demon and Nihaa means a destroyer. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Kaalanemim Asuram Nijaghaana iti Kaalaneminiha’ – He destroyed a demon called Kaalanemi and hence He is called Kaalaneminihaa – the destroyer of Kaalanemi. Kaalanemi was the uncle of Ravana, who was was destroyed by Hanuman. He was later born as Kamsa in his subsequent birth and was slain by Lord Krishna.

Sri Sankara gives another interpretation – ‘nemi’ refers to the outer ring of a wheel, ‘Kaala’ is Time and ‘nihanam’ means killing, so Kaalaneminiha means that He is the destroyer of the wheel of time.

Sri V.V Ramanujan comments that the wheel of Time represents Avidya or ignorance; since Bhagavan destroys this Avidya, He is called Kaalaneminiha.

Sri Parasara Bhattar quotes the following where Bhagavan says:
Avidyakhya ca ya nemih kaalachakrasya durdharaa                                        
sa mayiyam samaashritya vigraham vidhunoti ca ||
Meaning:  Avidya (Ignorance) is an irresistible folly of the wheel of Time; when it comes to Me, it loses its form”.

The nine-syllabled mantra containing this Nama “Kaala-nemi-nighne Namah” removes the root-cause of Avidya or ignorance, as summarised by the author of Nirukti:
Kaala-chakrasya ya nemih avidyakihya ca durdhara
taam naashayati yashcaasau Kaala-nemi-niha smritah
navaksharo manurayam avidya-mula mocakah |

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri explains that for those who are caught up in the wheel of time (being born again and again) because of Avidya, He stops this wheel for them when they surrender unto Him.  He destroys their Karmas and grants them Moksha thereby ensuring that they are not caught in the Kaala (Yama) does not get them in his Chakra or cycle, to be born again. Sri Shastri also makes a reference to Kamsa’s killing as an interpretation for this Nama.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives reference from the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.  51. 42):
Kaalanemir hataḥ kaṁsaḥ pralambaadyaash ca sad-dviṣaḥ
ayaṁ ca yavano dagdho raajaṁs te tigma-cakṣuṣa
Meaning: I have killed Kaalanemi, reborn as Kamsa, as well as Pralamba and other enemies of the pious. And now, O King, this barbarian has been burnt to ashes by your piercing glance.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives a different explanation. He uses the root ‘haa’ meaning ‘to go’, and interprets ‘Niha’ as One who gives directions or makes things happen. He interprets ‘Kaala’ as Time, and ‘Nemi’ as the wheel, or that which keeps going. So Kaalanemi is interpreted as referring to the Sun, and Kaala-nemi-niha as One who makes the Sun go, or who sets the direction for the Sun, which sets the direction for Time.

Swami ChinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that the Supreme Self is called Kaalaneminiha because the Self is beyond the reach of intellect, and time is but a concept of intellect only, and since He is beyond this wheel of Time, He is called Kaalanemi-niha.

The Dharma Chakram writer points out that we should learn to use “time” to overcome the Karmas of the past. He who does not waste even a single moment of it and devotes all the time in the love and service of God and His creations is the one who has utilized time properly, and thus won over time. Those who use Time properly overcome Time itself and reach Him who is beyond Time.

  1. Veerah (Saurih) – He is Brave and Valiant

The Nama ‘Veerah’ means a brave or a bold person who is full of Valour. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Veerah Shoorah – He is called Veerah because He is Brave and Valiant’. His acts of bravery are evident in each of His Avataars where He takes on the mighty Asuras like Ravana, Hiranyakashipu, Banasura, Kamsa etc. and conquers them all.

Sri Parasara Bhattar uses the Nama ‘Sauri’ for this Shloka instead of Veerah. Sura was another name for Vasudeva, and Krishna as the Son of Sura is known as Saurih –‘Surasya Vasudevasya apatyam iti Saurih’.

Sri Bhattar makes a reference to Sauri Raja Perumal of Thirukkannapuram and explains Saurih as One Who is ever Valiant and Victorious.

The Story of Sowri Raja Perumal

Sauri RajanRangabhattar, an ardent devotee of the Lord was a priest at the Thirukannapuram temple. On one occasion, he had offered the Lord’s garland to the temple courtesan who came for Darshan of Lord. The Chola King who was passing by visited the temple quite unexpectedly.  The Priest panicked as he had given the garland to the courtesan and was worried that he had no other garland to honour the King. He immediately rushed to her and explained his predicament.  She gave back the garland just in time for the Rangabhattar to honour the King.

The King who received the garland, discovered to his shock a strand of hair in the garland and became irate. To escape from his wrath, Rangabhattar humbly submitted to the King that the Lord had a tuft of hair and that the strand of hair was from His tuft. The King did not believe it and asked the priest to prove it. Terrified at the King’s insistence, Rangabhattar rushed into the sanctum sanctorum and prayed to the Lord to save his life.  The merciful Lord gave Darshan to the King adorned in a black ‘Sowri’ and saved Rangabhattar. From that day on, the Lord at Thirukannapuram is known as ‘Sowri Raja Perumal’.

Sri Thirumangai Azhwar has composed this Pasuram in his Periya Thirumozhi (8.3.8) on Thirukannapuram Lord:
கொங்குமலி கருங்குவளை கண்ணாக தெண்கயங்கள்
செங்கமல முகமலர்த்தும் திருக்கண்ண புரத்துறையும்,
வங்கமலி தடங்கடலுள் வரியரவி னணைத்துயின்றா,
செங்கமல நாபனுக் கிழந்தேனென் செறிவளையே.
Meaning: The Lord’s eyes are like the fragrant blue water lilies floating on the clear ponds of Thirukannapuram and His face radiating like a red Lotus. He is the Lord who reclines in the deep Ocean on a serpent, with a red lotus rising from His navel.  I have lost myself to this beautiful Lord.

The Lord’s Beautiful Gait

After seeing the reclining beauty of Lord Ranganatha at Srirangam, Vibheeshna wanted to see the walking beauty of the Lord, upon which he was directed by the Lord to His ‘Keezh(akku) Veedu’ (Eastern Gateway of the Lord). This is the temple where the Lord showed Vibheeshana, His beautiful gait on a new moon day. To mark this event, on every Amavasya day at noon, Lord Sowri Rajan is carried out of His sanctum to the Vibheeshna Sannidhi to give Him Darshan with His beautiful gait.

The Mappillai

Garuda was returning from the Milky Ocean (Parkadal) with nectar to free his mother Vinata who was enslaved by Kadru.  While flying over this temple, he proudly thought he was carrying the nectar which others cannot.  He lost his energy and fell on the Sea.  Realizing his folly, Garuda sat on a rock in the Sea and performed penance seeking the pardon of Lord Vishnu. The Lord not only pardoned Garuda but also accepted Garuda as His Vahana.  This event is celebrated on the full moon day in Masi (Feb-Mar) where the Lord is taken on a procession to the sea shore near Karaikal.  Devotees welcome the Perumal calling Him out as ‘Mappillai’ (son-in-law).

Special Pongal every night

Thirukannapuram is famous for ‘Muniyodharan Pongal’.  There was a local chieftain by the name Muniyodharan, who was a Chola feudatory responsible for collecting taxes for the Nagapattinam district.  He was a great devotee of Vishnu and stayed in Thirukannapuram. He used to have his food only after offering it to Lord Sowri Raja Perumal.

Once due to torrential rains and flood, Muniyodharan spent all the tax collection for the welfare of the people and failed to pay it over to the King. The King was displeased with his action and ordered Muniyodharan’s arrest.  

KannapuramLord Vishnu appeared in the Chola King’s dream that night and ordered him to release Muniyodharan. When Muniyodharan returned home from the custody at night, his wife served him Pongal. He went to the temple to offer it to the Lord but the temple doors were closed. So he offered the prasadam from the main gate and later partook it. The next morning, when the priest opened the temple, everyone present found to their surprise that the temple was filled with the aroma of ‘Pongal’ and a bit of the Pongal was seen sticking to the mouth of Lord Sowri Raja Perumal. Since then, Pongal is offered to the Lord every night and this is called ‘Muniyodharan Pongal’.  

Thirukannapuram  Divyadesam  Sowriraja Perumal Temple is located 20kms North West of Nagapattinam and 30kms South of Kumbakonam and Mayavaram on the way to Thiruvarur, Tanjore District, Tamilnadu and is one of the 108 Divya Desam temples.

There is no ‘Paramapada Vasal’ for this temple as it is believed that one can reach ‘Vaikunta’ just by stepping into the temple and praying to the Lord.

Om Namo Narayanaaya _/\_

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains that He was born in the race of Suras, a Yadava clan – ‘Sura Vamsa Pradurbhutatvaat Saurih’, hence He is called Saurih. 

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha derives the meaning from the root word ‘Sura-vikraantau’ meaning ‘to be heroic’. Thus Saurih means One who is Heroic and Victorious – Surayata iti Saurih. He gives an alternate meaning – ‘Surasya apatyam Saurih – atyanta Surah’ to mean ‘He is the Ultimate Lord’.

The Dharma Chakram writer observes that a man has two types of potential enemies – from outside and from within. The enemies from within are more difficult to overcome and these enemies are in the form of – desire, anger, fear, jealousy, pride, lust, etc. One who does not win over these enemies cannot make progress in life. A Veera is one who does not run away from these enemies, but fights valiantly and overcomes them. We need His help to overcome these enemies. We should seek His help in fighting and overcoming the enemies inside us to make spiritual progress.

  1. Shurah – The Valiant

Sita RamaBasically this means the same as the last Nama ‘Veerah’. Sri Adi Sankara uses the Nama ‘Shaurih’ for this and he interprets it as ‘Shurakuladbhavaat Shaurih – Since he was born in the family of the King Sura, He is called Shaurih’. The Sura King referred here is the father of Vasudeva. So Krishna is known as Shaurih as He is the grandson of Sura in His Krishna Avataar.

Parasara Bhattar’s explains this Nama as specifically referring to Lord’s incarnation as Rama, whose valour is renowned. Sri Vedanta Desikar refers to Lord Rama as ‘Asahaaya Surar’ meaning A Valiant One not requiring anyone’s help or assistance. Rama’s Valour is as much in display when He forgives His opponents as when He vanquishes them.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains that He is unrestrained not only in His Valour, but He is also unconstrained by Kaala, Desha etc. (Kaala dig desha vibhaaga Muktah), unconstrained in fulfilling the desires of His devotees (Dadaati varyam), pervades this Universe and is unconstrained in His functions of Creation, Protection, and Dissolution, sustains all creatures by being unconstrained and appearing in the form of the Sun, Mitra, Varuna, Vayu, Agni etc. in the morning, afternoon and evening.

  1. Shauri-Janeshvarah – The Chief of the Shuras or the Chief of Valiant people

arjuna_krishna_chariot-frontShurajana or Shaurijana means brave people. Bhagavan is the Lord or Commander of other brave people hence He is called Shurajaneshvarah. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Shurajananam Vasavadeenam Shauryatishayena ishta iti Shurajaneshvarah – He commanded other brave people like Indra because of the abundance of His own Valour hence He was called Shurajaneshvarah’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains this Nama as ‘Shura jananam Ishvarah Shura-janeshvarah’ – He is the Chief of Valiant people like Hanuman, SugrIva, Arjuna, Bheema etc.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri observes that Bhagavan is the Lord of Devas like Indra, warriors like Arjuna, SugrIva and Hanuman.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives another dimension of this Guna of Bhagavan – He is the One from whom all that moves in any form has originated, and thus He is the Lord of all.

  1. TrilokAtma – He who moves about in all the three Worlds

sri-padmanabha-swamy-thiruvananthapuramSri Adi Sankara gives two interpretations for this Nama. The first is ‘Trayanaam lokanaam Antaryamitaya Atma iti TrilokAtma – He is the Inner controller (antaryamin) of the three worlds.  He has deeply permeated all the three worlds and is the vital essence of the three worlds, hence He is called TrilokAtma’.

Sri Sankara give another interpretation is ‘Trayo lokaah asmaat paramaarthato na bhidyante iti vaa Trilokatma – All the three worlds are in no way different from him being his own manifestation hence He is called TrilokAtma’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives His interpretation based on the derivation of the word ‘Atma’ from the root ‘ata’ meaning ‘to be always moving about’ (ata Saatatyagamane) – TrIn lokan atati satatam gacchati.  Bhagavan moves about the three world to come to the rescue of His ardent devotees like Gajendra, Prahlada, Draupadi etc.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives reference from NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (6.9.5) where the Azhwar beautifully expresses this concept:
விண்மீதிருப்பாய் மலைமேல் நிற்பாய். கடல்சேர்ப்பாய்!
மண்மீதுழல்வாய் இவற்றுளெங்கும் மறைந்துறைவாய்!
எண்மீதியன்ற புறவண்டத்தாய் எனதாவி,
உண்மீதாடி உருக்காட்டாதே யொளிப்பாயோ?
Meaning: O’ Lord you are in the Sky, you stand on the hill, sleep on the ocean, walk on the plains.  You are present in all these, hidden and existing in countless other worlds as well. Blended in me, will you still hide yourself from me?

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha extends this to point out that not only does He move about in the three worlds, but He is the One who makes everything move about in all the three worlds, so He is TrilokAtma in this sense as well.

Swami ChinmayAnanda interprets ‘Tri-loka’ to refer to the three states of experience – the waking, the dream and the deep-sleep, and gives the interpretation that He is the Reality, the Self of all the three worlds of experiences.  Thus, He is called TrilokAtma because He moves about in the three worlds, He is the antaryami of everything in the three worlds, and He makes everything move about in the three worlds.

  1. Trilokeshah – The Ruler of the three Worlds

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Trayo lokah Tadaajnaptaah sveshu sveshu karmasu vartante iti Trilokeshah – All the three worlds keep doing their respective duties under His orders, hence He is called Trilokeshah or the Lord of the three Worlds’. All living beings and all natural forces and entities keep performing their respective roles on His orders and therefore He is truly the Lord of the Universe. Even though the three Worlds are only a part of the Universe, here the part represents the whole.

Sri Bhattar says ‘Tri-lokanam Ishataya tri-lokeshah’ – By virtue of His being the Lord or Ruler of the three worlds, He is known as Trilokeshah.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains this as ‘Triloka-eeshah’ i.e. He is the Lord of the three Worlds in Whose presence all activities takes place; in Whose absence all activities cease. When life, the Self, manifests in a body, all experiences takes place; when life is extinct, all activities cease. Hence, Lord Narayana is the Self, the spark of existence in all creatures.

654             Keshavah – He removes sorrows of His Devotees

krishnaThis Nama occurred earlier as Nama 23 and has several meanings:

  1. One who has beautiful locks of hair and is of Supreme fragrance
  2. He who is the source or origin of Brahma and Shiva
  3. He who is the source of the rays emanating from the Sun etc.
  4. The tormentor of His enemies
  5. One who removes sorrows of His devotees and grantor of Moksha
  6. One who Rules over water (Oceans etc.)

The word Kesha refers to hair as well as rays of light. Some of the interpretations are based on these two meanings. Another approach at interpreting the Nama is based on the word kam as in water or Sukham (bliss). Yet another interpretation is based on the root klish – to torment. There is also another one which is based on kah + Isah = Keshah.

Sri Adi Sankara provides two interpretations for this very popular and powerful Nama. The first is ‘Kesha Samjnitaah Suryaadisankranta Amshavah tadvattayaa Keshavah – The rays emanating from luminous bodies such as the Sun are called Keshas and hence Bhagavan being endowed with much more powerful rays of the same nature is called Keshavah’.  He refers to the following passage from MahaBharata Santi Parva (341.48):
Amshavo ye Prakaashante mama te keshasamjnitah
Sarvajnaah Keshavam tasmaat maamaahur dvijasattamaah |
Meaning: On account of my dazzling rays called Kesha all learned folks invoke me by the name of Keshava.

Sri Sankara’s second interpretation is ‘BramhaVishnuShivaakhyaah Shaktayah Keshasamjnitaah Tadvattayaa Vaa Keshavah – Kesha also refers to the energies of Bramha, Vishnu and Shiva and Bhagavan who has these combined energies in Him is called Keshavah’.

The Rig Veda (1.164.44) says ‘Trayah Keshinah – there are three energy forms’. In the Vishnu Puranam (5.1.61) it says ‘Matkeshau Vasudhaatale – My two energy forms (Bramha and Shiva) are present on the planet’.

Both Sri Sankara and Sri Bhattar quote from the Harivamsa(3.88.48) where Lord Shiva says:
Ko Bramheti Samakhyatah Ishoham Sarvadehinaam Aavaam
Tavamshasambhutau Tasmaat Keshavanaamavaan |
Meaning: Bramha is known as Ka and I (Shiva) as Isha who rules all the embodied beings. Both of us have been born out of Thy body, and therefore You are known by the name Keshavah. Thus, this Nama signifies that Brahma and Shiva originated from Bhagavan.

Sage Veda Vyasa says this in MahaBharata:
Satyam Satyam punah Satyam Uddhrtya bhujam uchyate    |
VedaaShastraat Param naasti na daivam Keshavaat Param ||
Meaning: Raising up my arms, I declare on oath that there is no scriptural text greater than the Veda, and no deity superior to Keshava.  Truth, this is the truth and again this is the truth.

Sri Parasara Bhattar further explains that Bhagavan removes sorrows of His devotees and is the grantor of Moksha. This Nama indicates that the Lord is possessed of qualities like Supremacy and kindness which are all His Nature.  He gives another meaning that the Lord possesses curly locks of hair, which are sublime, soft and blue (Prashasta – snigdha – neela – kutila – kuntalah).  Sobhanah Kesha yasya sah Keshavah – He who has beautiful hair. Kesha means hair, and the suffix ‘va’ is added to denote the “beauty” of the hair.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri adds to this by referring to His Narasimha Avataar, the beauty of His hair as a Lion. Maareecha had described Lord Rama’s hair as ‘Sikhee kanaka maalayaa – beautiful like a golden garland’. The Gopis described Krishna as ‘kutila kuntalam komalaananam – One with curly locks of hair and lotus-like face’.

NammAzhwar describes the beauty of the Kesham of Bhagavan as well as its fragrance in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (7.7.9):
கொள்கின்ற கோளிரு ளைச்சுகிர்ந் திட்ட கொழுஞ்சுருளின்,
உள்கொண்ட நீலநன் னூல்தழை கொல்?அன்று மாயங்குழல்,
விள்கின்ற பூந்தண் டுழாய்விரை நாறவந் தென்னுயிரை,
கள்கின்ற வாறறி யீரன்னை மீர்! கழறாநிற்றிரே
Meaning: Are they radiant Sun rays that have soaked up the darkness of night? No, they are the dark radiant tresses of the Lord with fragrance of fresh Tulasi blossoms emanating from his flute that has taken over my soul.  Alas! You do not understand this, Ladies, and you ridicule me, only I can feel it and feel about it.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha has another interpretation of this Nama – He derives the meaning that Keshavah as One who torments His enemies – based on the root Klish – vibaadhane – to torment, to distress.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives two other interpretations – ‘kam’ means water or bliss; He who has the Lordship over water (Oceans etc.) is Keshavah – jalam tamIshta aishvarya bhavaya nayati iti keSah (kam + Isah); or, He who has control over the bliss (material as well Moksham) of the Jivas.

Swami ChinmayAnanda gives two similar interpretations – Keshavah is one who has long curly hair and second one as ‘Ka’ as Brahma and ‘Isah’ as Shiva as both emanating from Lord Vishnu and hence He is Keshavah.

  1. Keshiha – He who killed the Asura by the name Keshi

Krishna-Killing-Keshi-demonThere was a demon by the name of Keshi and he was killed by Lord Vishnu. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Keshi naamaanam asuram hatavaan iti Keshihaa – He destroyed the Asura named Keshi hence He is called Keshihaa’. We have seen names of this structure before: Krodhahaa – Destroyer of anger, Kaamahaa – Destroyer of desires, Veerahaa – Destroyer of brave enemies and so on.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives a similar interpretation – ‘Keshi-Namanam asuram hatavan iti Keshi-ha.  Kamsa had sent several Asuras and finally sent the most powerful of them in the form of Keshi, who took the form of a horse, to kill the child Krishna. Krishna put his small hand into the mouth of the horse and began to increase the size of His hand and the Asura suffocated to death.  Sri Andal’s Thiruppavai Pasuram 8 has reference to this incident where she says to ‘Ma vai Pilandhaanai’ – the One who killed horse shaped Keshi.  Sri BhoodathAzhwar in 2nd Thiruvantadi (93) refers to this incident by saying ‘Koondhal vai Keendaanai’ meaning the One who killed the horse Keshi by tearing into his mouth.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha takes the meaning of the root ‘ha’- to go, and derives his interpretation for the Nama based on the Rig-Vedic description of Keshi referring to Agni, Vaayu, and Surya. Keshi is one who has Kesha or hair and the smoke is the “hair” of the fire; the rays of Surya are the Keshas of Surya; Indra (lightning) is the Keshi which is not seen; an alternate meaning for the reference to dadrshe na rupam in the mantra as Vaayu instead of Indra. The Rig-Vedic mantra (1.164.44) he quotes in support of this is:
Trayah Keshina Rtutha vicakshate samvatsare vapata eka esham    |
Vishvam eko abhicashte SacibhirdhrAjirekasya dadrshe na rupam  ||
Meaning: Bhagavan is called Keshiha because He directs Agni, Surya, Indra, or Vaayu to perform their functions.

  1. Harih – The Destroyer of Distress of His Devotees

Vishnu5The Nama Harih has several meanings:

  1. The Green-hued
  2. He Who removes distress of His devotees
  3. The Destroyer of the Universe at the time of Pralaya

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Sahetukam samsaram harati iti Harih – He destroys the cycle of Samsara or the cycle of birth and death along with the root causes hence He is called Harih, the destroyer of the bondage of Samsara. The root cause of Samsara is Avidya or lack of true knowledge. By providing Enlightenment, Bhagavan eliminates Samsara along with its root cause of ignorance and bestows Moksha.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains Harih by interpreting this to mean the colour ‘hara’ or green. Sri Bhattar quotes from the MahaBharata (343.39) to support this: ‘idopahutam ……. varnashca me Harih Sreshthah tasmaad harir-iti smritah’ – ‘My complexion is that of foremost of gems called Harit. It is for these reasons that I am called by the name of Hari’.

Sri Thondaradipodi Azhwar’s Pasuram from Thirumalai (1.2) describes the Lord as ‘பச்சைமா மலைபோல்மேனி’ meaning The Lord’s body is like the hue of a huge green mountain.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha extends this to include Bhagavan’s destruction of the world at the time of Pralaya, and His destruction of the darkness in our minds.

The Dharma Chakram writer observes that the sight of green gives a feeling of peace to the mind; the thought of Hari, the green-hued One, similarly gives peace to the mind. The ‘Hari Nama’ is chanted whenever one starts anything auspicious, and this is to remove all obstacles and sins that may be committed in the process.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri notes that the repeated chanting of the following 16 Namas is prescribed for the removal of all sins in the Kali Yuga:
Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare              |
Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare ||


Kaalaneminiha Veerah Shurah Shaurijaneshvarah       |
TrilokAtma Trilokeshah Keshavah Keshiha Harih     ||69||

Vishnu3He destroyed the demon Kaalanemi and hence He is known as Kaalaneminiha. He is Veerah as He is Valiant who conquered all His enemies. He was born as Krishna in the Shura dynasty, hence He is known as Shurah. He is the Lord of the Valiant Celestial Heroes, so He is called Shaurijaneshvarah.

He pervades the three worlds and is the Inner controller in all beings in all the three worlds, present in all the three states of Waking, Dream and Deep-Sleep, hence He is TrilokAtma. He is the Lord of the three Worlds, so He is called Trilokeshah.

He is the source of the rays emanating from the luminous bodies such as the Sun which are called Keshas.  He is Supreme, composed of the energy of Brahma and Siva within Him and hence He is Keshavah. He is Keshiha as He slayed the demon Keshi.  He is Harih as He is the destroyer of sorrows of His devotees and a means to Liberation.



This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.


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