SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 104) – PART 113

In this part, we will explore the meaning of the 104th Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


BhurbhuvasSvasTarus T
aarah Savita Prapitamahah    |
Yajno Yajnapatir Yajva Yajnaango Yajnavaahanah ||104||

Purport
He is like a Tree extending across the three lokas of Bhu, Bhuvah and Svah. He ferries across the Ocean of Samsara.  He is Progenitor and the creator of the whole World. As the Creator of Bramha (who is the Universal grandfather), He is the great grandfather. He is Yajna personified and He is also the recipient of the offerings. He is the performer of all Yajnas in effect as the antaryami in the performer. He is the ultimate goal of the Yajnas and He is the carrier of the Yajnas to the final stage and grants appropriate results to the performers of Yajna.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1.     Bhur-Bhuvassvas-Tarus
  2.     Taarah
  3.     Savita
  4.     Prapitamahah
  5.     Yajnah
  6.     Yajnapatih
  7.     Yajva
  8.     Yajnaangah
  9.     Yajnavaahanah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1.    Bhur-Bhuvassvas-Taruh – He Who is the tree for the beings of the three worlds

Sri Adi Sankara offers three different explanations for this Nama: The first is ‘BhurBhuvasSvas Samaakhyaani treeni Vyahritirupaani Shukraani trayee saaraani Bahvrichaa Aahuh, taih Homadina Jagattrayam Tarati Plavate vaa iti Bhur-Bhuvasvas-Taruh – Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah are the three sound entities which are the condensed essences of the three Vedas. Like a tree that extends over the three worlds, He helps people to cross over the them through these sound entities by performing Homa or offering sacrifices to the fire, hence He is called Bhur-Bhuvassvas-Taruh, the One who helps us to cross the three worlds by means of Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah’.

The second interpretation is ‘Athavaa BhurBhuvasSvas Samaakhya lokatraya Samsara Vriksho BhurBhuvasSvasTaruh- Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah are the names of the three worlds and He is the tree consisting of these and therefore He is called BhurBhuvasSvasTaruh – the tree of Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah’.

The third interpretation is ‘BhurBhuvasSvaraakhyam Lokatrayam Vrikshavat Vyaapya Tishthati iti vaa BhurBhuvasSvasTaruh – He occupies the three worlds Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah like a single huge tree and hence He is called BhurBhuvasSvasTaruh’.

The word ‘Bhu’ refers to this world; ‘Bhuvah’ refers to the middle world – the antariksha or Sky, ‘Svah’ refers to the heavenly world and ‘taru’ means ‘tree’. He is the protection for all the beings of all the three worlds, and because He bestows the fruits to the beings of all these worlds, He is called the tree for the beings of the three worlds.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘Bhur-Bhuvassvar-upalakshitaih pakshi pathikairiva pranibhih upajivyamanac-chaaya patrala paarijatah Bhur-Bhuvassvas- Taruh’- He is like the Paarijata, the celestial tree, for all the beings in the three worlds beginning with the Earth, Sky and the Heaven, even as a tree is a welcome resort for the birds and the travelers due to its green foliage and cool shade.

Sri Bhattar gives the following support from the Vishnu Purana:
Samaashritaat brahma taroh anantaat |
Nissamshayah pakva phala prapatah ||VP 1.17.91)
Meaning: If a person resorts to the eternal Tree of Brahman, there is no doubt that the ripe fruit (of liberation from the bondage of Samsara and the attainment of Moksha) will certainly fall in his hands.

Sri V.V. Ramanujam refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram 2.8.5, where the Azhwar says:
ஒவாத்துயர்ப்பிறவி யுட்படமற்றெவ்வெவையும்,
மூவாத்தனிமுதலாய் மூவுலகும்காவலோன்,
மாவாகியாமையாய் மீனாகிமானிடமாம்,
தேவாதிதேவபெருமா னென்தீர்த்தனே |
Meaning: The Lord of the Devas single-handedly protects all the beings of the three worlds and redeems the sufferings. He is the Sole cause for all the beings, and after creating them, He takes responsibility for protecting them, and does not back down under any circumstance. He has taken various Avataars such as Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Hayagriva, Rama and Krishna to protect us.

In his Thiruvai Mozhi, Sri NammAzhwar emphasises that even though Bhagavan is responsible for all three functions – creation, protection and destruction, protection is His primary concern – Kaakkumiyalvinan Kanna PerumAn (Thiruvai Mozhi 2.2.9).

In Kishkinda Kandam, Tara counsels Vali (based on her son Angad’s account of Rama) and describes Rama as a tree of refuge and protection for all:
निवास वृक्षः साधूनाम् आपन्नानाम् परा गतिः | ४-१५-१९
आर्तानाम् संश्रयः चैव यशसः च एक भाजनम् |
Meaning: He is said to be the habitable tree for the noble and the virtuous, the ultimate course for the despondent, a hospice for the agonised, and for grace – Rama is the only abode. 

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as:
Bhuh iti bhu lokah, buvah iti antariksham, svah iti dyu-lokah, ete trayo
Lokah trayah skandha iva yamashritya tishthanti, sa etesham Adharo mulabhutah
Parameshvarah tarur-ivasthito Bhur-Bhuvassvas-Taruh |
Meaning: He Who serves as the tree under which all the beings of this world, the sky and the heaven seek refuge, is Bhur-Bhuvassvas-Taruh. 

  1.    Taarah – Saviour

Sri Adi Sankara gives two interpretations for this Nama. The basic root is ‘Tru’ which means ‘to cross or to bridge across’. The first interpretation is ‘Samsaara Saagaram Taarayan Taarah – He enables people to cross over the Ocean of Samsara, hence He is called Taarah’.

His second interpretation is ‘Pranavo vaa Taarah– He is the same as Pranava Mantra since the chanting of Omkara helps people to cross the Ocean of Samsara’.  This is why the Rama Nama is also called the ‘Taaraka mantra’ which enables people to attain Moksha or liberated state from the bondage of Samasara.

The root from which the Nama is derived is ‘tru – plavanasantaranayoh’ meaning ‘to cross over, to swim’. He who helps the Jivas that are deeply immersed in the Ocean of Samsara, to cross this Ocean.

Sri Bhattar gives the interpretation as ‘Saviour’ – Sarva Samsara bhayaat taarayati iti Taarah – One Who protects us from the Ocean of Samsara.  He gives a quote from the atharva Siras in support:
Garbha janma jara marana Samsara Sagaramaha bhayat taarayati iti tasmat Taarah|
Meaning: He helps all to overcome the great fears of Samsara and assists them to cross over the Samsara Sagara comprising conception, birth, old age, and death, therefore He is called Taarah.

Sri V.V.Ramanujam gives reference to Thirumangai Azhwar’s Periya Thirumozhi Pasuram (11.8.10), where he praises the Guna of Bhagavan as Taarah:
நந்தா நரகத் தழுந்தா வகை,நாளும் எந்தாய்
தொண்டரா னவர்க்கின் னருள்செய்வாய்,
சந்தோகா தலைவனே தாமரைக் கண்ணா,
அந்தோ அடியேற் கருளாயுன் னருளே.
Meaning: My Lord! Sweet grace of devotees! O’ Master of the Chandogya (Upanishad) , Lotus-eyed Krishna! Pray show me a way to escape the eternal damnation of Hell. 

Because Samsara is compared to an Ocean, and Bhagavan helps cross this, He is traditionally compared to a ferry. Sri Krishnan refers us to Sri Andal’s reference to Him as the ferry to cross all miseries – ‘Naalumtunbak kadal pukku vaikuntan endru Or toni peraadu uzhalginren (Nachiyaar Thirumozhi 5.4).

Sri Krishnan refers us to Thiru navai (literally meaning ‘The Blessed Ship’), where Lord Mukundan gives Moksham to the devotees who worship Him. Drawing an example he explains that all that a measly worm has to do to cross from one peak to another peak in its lifetime, is to climb on a lion that jumps from the first peak to the second peak, and in the process, the worm has achieved an otherwise impossible feat. Similarly, all that the Jiva has to do is to surrender to Lord Narasimha and He will make sure that the Jiva crosses the insurmountable obstacle of crossing the Ocean of Samsara. He is like a boat that carries one from one shore to the other shore. All that the individual has to do is to get into the boat, and leave the navigation to the boatman.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama as ‘One Who helps us cross over; the Eternal Boat-man, to whom, if the devotee can surrender in unswerving faith and true devotion, He will surely row them across the Ocean of Samsara; That One is Taarah. Through exclusive, devoted meditation, alert with understanding, the individuality in each of us wakes up to the higher plane, and there, in that Beattitude to experience the Self – the Eternal Brahman – Sri Hari’.

The Dharma Chakram writer notes that we should we should dedicate ourselves to His service in everything we do. The Rama Nama is called ‘taraka mantra’, because it protects those who meditate on this taraka Nama. Just as Hanuman was able to cross the Ocean by chanting Lord Rama’s Nama, we will be able to cross the Ocean of Samsara by meditating on His Nama. He quotes the common saying in tamizh – ‘Raman irukkum idattil kaman illai; kaman irukkum idatitil Ramanillai’ – Where there is Rama, there is no desire for material things; where is desire for material things, there is no dedication to Rama. The more intensely we resort to the taraka mantra, the faster we will be relieved from the bondage of Samsara.

Lord Rama and Guha

This is a short exchange between Rama and Guhan to highlight the Guna of Bhagavan as One Who helps His devotees to cross the Samsara Sagara.

After staying a night in Guhan’s village, Rama, Lakshmana and Sita got ready to cross the Ganges and came to Guha who had a boat ready and waiting. Then the Kevat (Oarsman) asked permission to wash Rama’s feet and said I don’t want my boat turning into a woman as this is the only means of livelihood. So let me clean your feet before getting into the boat. And Lord Rama smilingly obliged.

Rama asks Guhan as to how to pay for the services, to which Guhan jovillay replies that we are both oarsmen.  I help people cross the River Ganga while you help people to cross the Samsara Sagara!

Jai Shri Ram!

  1.    Savita – He Who produces or Creates

The root ‘Su’ means to ‘create or generate’, so Savita is one who produces. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Sarvasya Lokasya Janakah iti Savita – He is the creator of the whole World, hence He is called Savita’.

We came across this Nama in Shloka 94 as ‘Ravir Virochanas Suryo Savita Ravilochanah’. The meaning given was the deliverer of all Worlds.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains that Bhagavan is the Creator of everything – Sarvesham saakshaat janayita Savita.

Bhagavan first creates the 24 tattvas (prakriti, mahan, ahankara, the five tanmatras or subtle elements (shabda, sparsha, rupa, rasa, and gandha – sound, touch, sight, taste, smell), the panca bhutas (ether, air, agni or light, water, and earth), the five karmendriyas (hand, leg, tongue, and the organs of reproduction and excretion), the five jnanendriyas (ear, eye, mouth, nose, and skin), and manas. After this, He creates the first being, the Catur-mukha Brahma, and endows him with the knowledge for proceeding further with the Creation. He becomes the antaryami of Brahma, and guides him in the creation after this point. All the advarakasrishti is performed by Bhagavan through the medium of Catur- mukha Brahma. If it were not for the knowledge and power given by Bhagavan to Brahma, the subsequent stages of sa-dvaraka srishti would not have happened. So the true Creator is Bhagavan – saakshaat janayita.

Sri NammAzhwar, in many of his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasurams, repeatedly reminds us that Bhagavan is the true Creator, Protector and Destroyer. One among these is Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram 1.5.3, where Azhwar refers to Bhagavan’s action of creating Brahma and delegating further responsibilities to Him for subsequent creation: ni yonigalaip padai endru nirai Naanmuganai Padaittavan.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the root for the Nama as ‘Su – prani garbhavimocane’ meaning ‘to produce, to bring forth’ – Sute sarvam jagat iti Savita; sarvasya utpadaka ityarthah – He Who creates everything in the Universe is Savita.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan uses the Patham Sa-pita, and interprets the word as two Namas – ‘Sa and Pita’ and gives the interpretation as ‘The Father of All’, or the Creator of all – ‘tesham janakatvaat Pita’. 

  1.    Prapitamahah – The Great-grandfather

The term ‘Pita’ means father, Pitamahah means grandfather and Prapitamahah means great grandfather. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Pitamahasya Bramhanah api Pita iti Prapitamahah – He is the Creator or father of Bramha who is the Universal grandfather. Being the father of all early Prajapatis from whom the further population descended, He is called the great grandfather or Prapitamahah’.

According to Puranas the entire human population descended from a few people directly created by Bramha. So Bramha can be considered as the grandfather of all. Bhagavan, being the creator of Bramha, is the great grandfather or the Prapitamahah for all people.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains that the four-faced Brahma is called Pitamaha or grand-father because He created the prajapatis, the first beings, who then created all the other prajaas – all the other beings.

Brahma is the father of all our forefathers who are dead and gone from time immemorial. Since Bhagavan is the Father of this Catur- mukha Brahma, He is called ‘pitamahasya pita or Prapitamahah’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains the Nama as: ‘Loka pitrunaam marIcyadinam pita Pitamahah catur-mukhah, tasya pitritvaat ‘pra- pitamahah’, which conveys the same idea as conveyed above.

Sri NammAzhwar refers to Bhagavan as the Creator in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (1.5.3):
மாயோ னிகளாய் நடைகற்ற வானோர் பலரும் முனிவரும்,
நீயோ னிகளைப் படை என்று நிறைநான் முகனைப் படைத்தவன்
சேயோ னெல்லா அறிவுக்கும், திசைக ளெல்லாம் திருவடியால்
தாயோன் எல்லா வெவ்வுயிர்க்கும் தாயோன் தானோ ருருவனே.
Meaning: You created the Sages and the Celestials, even the four-faced Brahma, and gave him the power to carry on with the Creation. Lord who stepped over all creation and measured the Universe, you are compassionate to all, like a mother to all beings!

  1.    Yajnah – He Who is the Sacrifice

The word ‘Yaj’ means ‘to sacrifice or offer oblation’. Yajna is the performance of a ritual sacrifice or offering one’s possessions to others. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Yajnaatmana Yajnah – He is Yajna personified and hence He is called Yajnah’.  Sri Sankara explains as:
Sarva yajna svarupatvat yajnah |
Sarvesham devanam tushtikarako yajna akarena pravarta iti va |
Meaning: All sacrifices are His form, or because He exists as sacrifice in order to please all the gods’.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 3 Verse 9), Bhagavan says:
Yajnarthat karmano ‘nyatra loko ‘yam karma-bandhanah |
Tad-artham karma kaunteya muktasangah samacara ||
Meaning: Work done as a sacrifice for Vishnu has to be performed, otherwise work binds one to this material world. Therefore, O’ son of Kunti, perform your prescribed duties for His satisfaction, and in that way you will always remain unattached and free from bondage.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 9 Verse 16) Bhagavan says:
Aham kratur aham yajnah svadhaaham ahamaushadham |
Mantro’hamahameva Aajyam aham agnih aham hutam ||
Meaning:  But it is I who am the ritual, I the sacrifice, the offering to the ancestors, the healing herb, the transcendental chant. I am the butter and the fire and the offering. Hence, He is rightly called as Yajnah.

In Chapter 4 Verse 24 of the Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavan says:
Brahmarpanam Brahmahavih brahmagnau Brahmana hutam |
Brahmaivatena gantavyam brahma karma samadhina ||
Meaning: Brahman is the instrument to offer with; Brahman is the oblation; By Brahman is the oblation offered into the fire of Brahman; Brahman alone is to be reached by him who meditates on Him in His work.

Sri Parasara Bhattar comments that Bhagavan is the object of all yajnas, the bestower of benefits of the yajnas, the aids for the performance of the yajna, etc., and so He is called Yajnah – ‘yajna, tat sadhana, tat-phala vadhitvena pratipaditah | ato Yajnah |’.

Sri Bhattar gives the following from Vishnu Purana in support, where the ijya or sacrifice is described as the basis for all the sustenance of all the three worlds:
Tatashca ijya Ahutir-dvara poshitastehavir-bhujah |
Vrishteh karanatam yanti bhutanam sthitaye punah || VP 2.8.101
Meaning: The Devas, who are the receivers of the oblations, being nourished by the offerings in the fire, cause the rains to fall for the support of the created beings.

The Nama is derived from the root yaj – deva puja sa’ngati karanayajana daneshu – to sacrifice, to make an oblation to, to give, to associate with. Several interpretations are possible:  yajanam yajnah; ya ijyate sayajnah; yajanti yatra iti yajnah; ijyate anena iti yajnah sadhanam – He Who is worshipped, the means or objects used in the offerings, are all called Yajnah.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 9 Verse 24) Bhagavan says:
Aham hi sarva yajnanam bhokta caprabhureva ca |
Na tu maamabijaananti tattvena atash-cyavanti te ||
Meaning: I am the only enjoyer and the only Lord of all sacrifices. They do not recognize Me in My true nature, and hence they fall.

Sri Bhattar also refers us to the Srutivakya – Yajno vai Vishnuh – Yajna is Vishnu Himself. Sri Bhattar explains that Bhagavan serves the function of the yajna for those who do not have the means to perform proper yajnas, but who just do His Nama japa instead– svaradhana dharma samriddhi riktanam tad-arthinam svyameva Yajnah– To those devotees who wish to attain Him, and therefore want to perform AradhanA (worship) of the Lord, but have no physical and material wherewithal, the Lord Himself stands as the japa Yajna, i.e., He is pleased with the japa which itself is a Yajna.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan’s interpretation is along similar lines – ‘aki’ncananam tat-tad-Aradhana upakaranatvat Yajnah’ – Since He serves as the means for those who are otherwise not in a position to worship Him, He is called Yajnah.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘evamca yajyate sangamyatediyate ca yasma iti nanartho yajna Sabdah’ – He Who is worshipped, to Whom all the benefits of all karmas are dedicated, etc., is known as Yajnah. Sri Vasishtha further explains that all our actions are ultimately performed for our Atma-priti, and since Bhagavan is the antaryami of our Atma, they are ultimately performed for His pleasure.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri explains the Nama as ‘One who associates the karmas of the Jivas with their effects’.

Sri Raghunatha Thirtha explains the Nama as One who is worshipped in sacrifices – ‘yajne ijyah stutyah pujyah iti yajna-ijyah’.

Swami ChinmayAnanda defines the term yajna as ‘work undertaken with a pure spirit of total dedication in complete cooperation with others, and for the wellbeing of all creatures and for the welfare of the world’. He then comments that whenever there is such a cooperative endeavor with total selflessness, there is Sriman Narayana in action through His creatures, and this is why He is called Yajnah.

  1.    Yajna-patih – The Lord of Yajna

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Yajnanam Pata Svami va Yajnapatih – He is the Lord of the Yajna or the recipient of the offerings made in the act of Yajna, hence He is called Yajnapatih, the Lord of the Yajna’.

In the Bhagavad Gita (9.24) Bhagavan says ‘Aham hi Sarvayajnanam Bhoktaa cha Prabhureva cha – I am the enjoyer of all sacrifices and the Lord of all sacrifices’. This justifies this Nama Yajnapatih, the Lord of all sacrifices.

Sri Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘sva-yajna-phala-pradah yajna-patih’ – He Who gives the fruit of sacrifices done to please Him.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the root ‘pa – rakshane’ meaning ‘to protect or to rule’, for the derivation of the word patih. The term ‘pati’ also means ‘Lord, Master’.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘svayam yajna rUpo yajanIyoyajna sadhanam ca Bhagavan yajnam patityato yajna-patih’ – Bhagavan is Himself in the form of sacrifice, He is the One Who is worshipped through Yajnas, and He is the means for the performance of the Yajna, and so He is the Protector of the Yajnas, and so He is called Yajna-patih.

Swami ChinmayAnanda continues with his broader definition of yajna as given in the previous Nama, and explains the current Nama as indicating that Bhagavan is the Enjoyer in all self-dedicated, co-operative endeavours, and so He is called yajna-patih. He emphasizes this point by quoting the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 3 Verse 9):
Yajnarthaat karmano’nyatra lok’ yam karma-bandhanah|
Tad-arthamkarma kaunteya muktasa’ngah samacara ||
Meaning: The world is bound by action other than performed for ‘the sake of sacrifice’; do thou, therefore, O son of kunti, perform action for the sake of Yajna alone, free from all attachments.

  1.    Yajva – He Who performs the sacrifice

The term ‘Yajva’ refers to the performer of the Yajna. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Yajamaanatmana tishthan Yajva – As He is the performer of all Yajnas in effect, hence He is called Yajva, the performer of the Yajna’. Bhagavan manifests Himself in anybody who is performing a Yajna, so in actuality He is the intrinsic performer using the performer as His instrument or medium. He supports this interpretation with the Bhagavad Gita verse (9.24) – ‘Aham hi Sarva yajnanam bhokta ca prabhureva ca – I am the only enjoyer and the only Lord of all the sacrifices’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as signifying Bhagavan Himself performing the sacrifice on behalf of those who are unable to perform their rites.  He gives the support from the MahaBharata in Lord Krishna’s own words:
Tesham tu pavanaya aham nityameva Yudhisthira! |
Ubhesandhye anutishthami hi askannam tad-vratam mama ||
Meaning: O’ Yudhishthira! For the purification of those who are unable to observe the daily rites, I am Myself doing the Yajna at both dawn and dusk every day. I never fail in carrying out this vow of Mine.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the word Yajva as One who has sacrificed. However, he notes that in the case of Bhagavan there are no limitations of time, and so the meaning should apply to the past, present, and future – in other words – ‘Vishva nirmnaa rupena tad- artha sadhana sampadana rupena ca yajnenaishtavan yajate, yakshyati iti va sa Yajva Vishnuh’ – One Who has sacrificed, One Who is sacrificing, and One Who will continue to sacrifice for the purpose of creating the Universe, and creating all the supporting materials for the existence and enjoyment of all the creatures, is Lord Vishnu.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan interprets the Nama as – ashaktam aki’ncanam Avishya tat-tad-Aradhanam nivartayan svyameva Yajva. The term Yajva has the same meaning as the word Yajamana meaning ‘One who performs the sacrifice’.

Swami ChinmayAnanda reminds us of the definition of Yajna as given in the earlier Nama and notes that the current Nama stresses that Bhagavan is the ‘One who performs the Yajna according to the strict prescriptions laid down in the Vedas – the One Who maintains in all His divine actions the true Yajna spirit’ – in other words, He undertakes all His actions for the benefit of the creatures of this world.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj uses the word ‘yaja – dane’ meaning ‘to give’, and interprets the Nama as – yajate dattevaraan bhaktebhya iti Yajva – He Who bestows His blessings on His devotees is Yajva.

  1.    Yajnaangah – He Who is attained through Yajna

Basically this Nama means components of a Yajna or a sacrificial ceremony. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this to mean ‘Yajnah angani asya iti Varahamurtih Yajnaangah – In his incarnation as Varaha Murthy or the great Boar His body parts represented the various components of a Yajna, hence He is called Yajnaangah, the integral parts of a Yajna’.

In support he supports the following description from Hari Vamsa (3.31 – 3.41) which says:
Vedapado Yupadamshtrah Kratuhastashchiteemukhah
Agnijihvo Darbharomaa Bramhasheersho Mahatapah
Ahoraatrekshano divyo Vedaangashruti Bhushanah
Aajyanaasas Sruvatundah Saamaghoshasvano Mahaan
Dharmasatyamayah Shreemaan Kramavikramasatkriyah
Praayashchittanakho Ghorah PashujaanurMahabhujah ||
Meaning: His feet are the four Vedas; His tusk is the sacrificial pillar; His hands are the Vedic rituals; His face is knowledge; His tongue is fire for the sacrifice; His hair is sacred grass for the Yajna; His head is Bramhan; His eyes are day and night (Sun and Moon); His ornamants are the various components of the Vedas; His nose is the sacrificial ghee; His trunk is the sacrificial ladle; His voice is the sound of the hymns from Sama Veda; His body consists of truth and righteousness; His movements depict valour and fulfilment of desire; His arms are the sacrificial animals and so on’.

Thus every part of Varaha incarnation represents a certain component of the Yajna, hence he is called Yajnaangah, the component of Yajna. 

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains that Yajno vai Vishnuh – Yajna is Vishnu Himself and every part of Him is Yajna. The yajnas such as Bhagavad Aradhana is performed by the devotees are a means in the form of an offering to Him, and He is the One Who is the angi or the final goal – ‘Samarthan anushthitamapi yajnantaram asya Seshabhutam iti Yajnaangah.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan explains the Nama as – yajnam angam asya iti yajnangah – He Who is attained by the yajnas.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha discusses the Nama in terms of the two parts of the Nama Yajna and Angah. Yajna as sacrifice has been discussed before and the term ‘anga’ is derived from the root ‘ang’ meaning ‘to go’. Anga also means a part or accessory.  He Who has the sacrifices of others as an accessory to what He is doing. The sacrifices performed by those who are all subservient to Him, and the Yajna is a means or an accessory to attain Him.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj uses the meaning parts for the term anga, and comments that this Nama of Bhagavan signifies that He is One Who is endowed with the divya angas from His Lotus Feet to His divine Head that are worthy of worship – ‘Yajnani pujaniyani angaani caranadi mastakantani yasya iti Yajnangah.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri refers us to a similar description of the Varaha rupa from Srimad Bhagavatam 3.13.34-39, where the divine form of Bhagavan as Varaha is compared to the different aspects of a Yajna (e.g., His body is itself Veda; the hairs of His body are like darbhas; His eyes are havis or ghee; etc.).

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha notes that broadly, the term Yajna can refer to all materials associated with a sacrifice:  ijyate yah, ijyate yena, ijyate yasmai, ijyate yatra va iti Yajaniyah, yajana sadhanam haviradi, yajan sampradam uddesho, yajan sthaladikam ca sarvam yajna Shabdena grihitama bhavati.

He for whom the sacrifice is done, he by whom the sacrifice is done, that for which it is performed, the place where the sacrifice is performed, in other words, the Lord who is worshipped through the sacrifice, the place of worship, the havis (ghee) etc. that are used in the sacrifice, etc. can all be indicated by the term Yajna.

The term Yajnaangah then means ‘One Who makes it possible to attain all the above that are needed for the sacrifice, or One Who receives the offerings through the sacrifice’ – Svayam yajanoyo yajna rupah san yajna rupani haviradini yajna sthalam gatva prapnoti iti Yajnangah. He is the One Who is attained through Yajna – yajne anganam = gatih yasya, sa yajnangah, or yajnaih = yajana karmabhih angah = praptih yasya sa yajnangah.

Alternatively, Sri Vasishtha notes that the term ‘anga’ can be taken to mean part, and since Bhagavan is the antaryami for all the aspects that are needed in a sacrifice, including Brahma, the hota, the adhvaryu, the havis, etc., hence He is also known as Yajnangah.

  1.    Yajna-vaahanah – He Who helps others complete their sacrifices

The root word is ‘Vaha’ means ‘to carry’. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Phalahetubhutaan Yajnaan Vaahayati iti Yajnavaahanah – He carries the Yajnas to the final stage by granting the appropriate results to the performers’.

The Karma or the act of Yajna by itself cannot give any result. It is Bhagavan who takes the responsibility for awarding the proper fruits to the performer. He thus carries the Yajna to the stage of fruition, hence He is rightly called Yajnavaahanah, the carrier of Yajna to its final stages of fruition.

Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama as ‘Tesham Bhakti Shraddha adhikara danena yajnam vahayati iti Yajna-vaahanah – He Who ensures the successful completion of a Yajna undertaken by the karta, by investing the karta with the necessary power, faith and means to perform the Yajna. Thus, Bhagavan is the One Who bestows the benefits to those who are able to perform the yajna themselves (yajna-patih), He is the One who performs the yajna for those who are unable to perform it themselves (Yajva), He is the One Who is to be attained by the yajnas that are performed (Yajnaangah), and He is the One Who gives the ability (Shakti), the interest (Shraddha) and the authority (adhikara) to undertake the Yajnas. And finally, He is the one who carries it to its ultimate fruitive benefit.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj uses the meaning vehicle for the term Vahana, and interprets the Nama as yajnam = pujaniyam Vahanam = vainateyo yasya iti Yajna-vaahanah – He Who has for His Vaahana or vehicle, Garuda who is worthy of worship.

In Summary
BhurbhuvasSvasTarus Taarah Savita Prapitamahah    |
Yajno Yajnapatir Yajva Yajnaango Yajnavaahanah   ||104||
He is like a tree that extends all the three worlds and helps people to cross over them through these sound entities by performing Homa or offering sacrifices to the fire, hence He is called Bhur-Bhuvassvas-Taruh. He enables people to cross over the Ocean of Samsara, hence He is called Taarah. He is the creator of the whole World, hence He is called Savita. As the Creator of Bramha, who is the Universal grandfather, He is great grandfather or Prapitamahah.

He is personification of Yajna, hence He is called Yajnah. He is the Lord of the Yajna or the recipient of the offerings made in the act of Yajna, hence He is called Yajnapatih. As He is the performer of all Yajnas in effect (as the antryami), He is called Yajva. In his incarnation as Varaha Murthy or the great Boar His body parts represented the various components of a Yajna, hence He is called Yajnaangah, the integral parts of a Yajna. He is also the goal of the Yajnas. He carries the Yajnas to the final stage by granting the appropriate results to the performers, hence He is known as Yajnavaahanah.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.

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SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 103) – PART 112

In this part, we will explore the meaning of the 103rd Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


Pramaanam Praananilayah Praanabhrit Praanajivanah |
Tattvam Tattvavid Ekatma Janma-Mrityu-Jaraatigah ||103|| 

Purport
He is the authentic source for everything and sets the standards for righteous action. He is the ultimate abode for all beings. He sustains all sentient and non-sentient beings and is the Life Giver as well as the in-dweller. He is the source, essence and the truth as well as knower of the truth. He is the one and only Superior Soul (Purusha).  He is beyond birth, death and old age.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1.    Pramaanam
  2.    Praananilayah
  3.    Praanabhrit
  4.    Praanajivanah
  5.    Tattvam
  6.    Tattvavit
  7.    Ekatma
  8.    Janma-Mrityu-Jaraatigah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1.    Pramaanam – He is the Authentic Souce for Everything

The root word is ‘Maana’ meaning ‘to measure’ and ‘Pra’ is a prefix meaning ‘special or unique’. Combining the two, Pramaanam means a reference or authority or a standard or a benchmark from which others are derived. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Pramitih Samvit Svayampramaa Pramaanam – He is a self-evident and self-sufficient authority for everything, hence He is called Pramaanam’.

Sri Sankara quotes from the Aitareya Upanishad (3.5.3) which says ‘Prajnaanam Bramha – Bramhan is pure wisdom’. Pure wisdom is its own authority. There is no higher knowledge which comes into play to support pure wisdom or Prajnaanam. In other words, pure wisdom is self-evident, self-sufficient and self-supporting. Bhagavan is precisely that. In Vishnu Puraanam (1.2.6), it says ‘Jnaanasvarupam Atyantanirmalam Paramaarthatah Tameva Arthasvarupena Bhraanti darshanatah Sthitam – Bhagavan is Pure Knowledge, Pure without blemishes, the Ultimate Meaning and He is also concrete in the material plane to support physical and material knowledge’. He is therefore called Pramaanam, the ultimate reference point and the ultimate answer for every question.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explained in the earlier occurrence that Bhagavan is the authority for determining what is good and what is bad for the people, thereby setting the standards for righteous action. For the current instance, Sri Bhattar explains that Bhagavan reveals the secrets and mystic truths of the Vedas without a shadow of doubt or error – ‘Evam nissamshaya viparyaya Veda rahasya param Artha pratyayakatvaat Pramaanam’.

Bhagavan is the true Pramaanam – the authentic proof. He is not only the goal to be achieved – prameyam, but He is also the means to achieve the goal – pramaanam.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the root for the Nama as ‘maang – maane’ meaning ‘to measure, to limit, to compare with, to form, to show, etc.’ The term ‘Pramaanam’ is used as ‘proof, valid knowledge, authentic source, authority, etc’. – prakrishtam maanam Pramaanam – Superior knowledge or a Valid authority.

Sri Vasishtha gives the interpretation that Bhagavan has this Nama signifying that prior to Creation itself, He decided on the nature of the Universe, including the extent, the nature of the Gunas that dominate our conduct, the different kinds of beings, etc. – yaavat-pramaanakam, yaadrig-Gunam, yaadrig-Akritimacca jagan-nirmitsati, tat Pramaanam taan gunan tanca Akritim jagad-Arambhaat purvameva tan nirmati parimitayata eva tat-Pramaanam abhidiyate.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives several instances from the Shruti to support his interpretation:

  • anadvaan Indrah sa pashubhyo vicashte tra’nchako vimimite adhvanah (Atharva Veda 4.11.2) – He knows everything, and has measured the three worlds and examined all beings
  • nava Praanan navabhih sam mimite dirghayutvaya Satasharadaya | (Atharva Veda 5.28.1) – He creates nine types of beings with 3 different gunas and chakras for a life of 100 years.
  • etavan asya mahima ato jyayag’mshca Purushah | (Purusha Suktam 3) – All that is seen here is His greatness. And beyond all this is the great Purusha.
  • dhamani Veda Bhuvanani Vishwa |(Yajur Veda 32.10) – He knows all the worlds, Vedas and everything about the Universe
  • sa Bhumim sarvato vritva atyatishthad-dasha’ngulam|(Rig Veda 10.90.1) – On every side pervading earth He fills space in ten directions.

Prajapate na twadetanyanyo vishwa jataniparita babhuva |
Yat kamaste juhumastanno astu vayam syama patayo rayinam || Rig Veda 10.121.10
Meaning: Lord of all creatures, there is no other entity besides You who can maintain command over and surpass all these created animate and inanimate objects, i.e. You are Paramount. Aspirant of whatsoever we offer our worship to You, please grant them. We may by Your grace be possessors of all kinds of wealth and high possessions. 

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives another etymological derivation – prakrshena mimite Sabdayati, Avishkaroti jnanam BrahmAdibhya iti Pramaanam – He Who clearly reveals or makes known, the true nature of Brahman etc. Sri Bharadvaj gives an alternative explaination for the Nama as – prakrshena maanyate BrahmAdibhih iti Pramaanam – He Who is worshipped by the likes of Brahma.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha interprets the Nama as – ‘prakrishtam maanam Vedadi Pramaanam yasmin iti Pramaanam – He Who has given the Vedas and scriptures the highest authority, is Pramaanam. An alternate interpretation given by him is – ‘Prakrishtam maanam Shareeraadi parimaanam Tri-vikramaadi rupena yasya iti Va Pramaanam – He Who took unusual dimensions for His form in His Tri-vikrama Avataar’.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan explains the Nama as ‘One Who always speaks the truth – Satya bhaashitvaat Pramaanam’. He gives this in support: ‘Pramaanam nitya-maryada Satya vaadi pramaatrishu’.

  1.    Praana-nilayah – He Who is the Abode for all beings

Sri Adi Sankara uses the term Praana to collectively represent the five types of Vayus that help the body function: Praana that sustains life in the form of the inhaled breath, apana that denotes the exhaled breath that expels impurities outside of the system, vyana that sustains the movements of the systems in the body, udana that supports the movements of the karmendriyas etc., and samana that aids the expelling of the waste from the body.

Praana refers to the five vital airs resident in any being to sustain life. Praana also means the sense organs of the body. Praana is also the name for Jivas or the living beings. Nilaya means the abode or the destination. Based on these Sri Sankara comes up with four different interpretations for this Nama.

The first one is ‘Praanaa indriyaani yatra jeeve Nileeyante tatparatantratvaat Praananilayah – Praanaah are the sense organs and they merge into Him and are dependent on Him and therefore He is called Praananilayah, the prime mover of the sense organs’.

The second interpretation is ‘Dehasya dhaarakaah Praanapanadayoh Vaa Tasmin Nileeyante iti Praananilayah – There are 5 vital airs that sustain life such as Praana and Apaana but they all get their get their sustenance and support from Bhagavan who is ultimately their storehouse hence He is called Praananilayah, the storehouse of the vital airs’.

The third interpretation is ‘Praaneeti iti Praano Jeevah Pare Pumsi Nileeyate iti vaa Praananilayah – Praanah refers to living beings and since they reside in Bhagavan, He is called Praananilayah, the abode of living beings’.

The fourth interpretation is ‘Praanaan Jeevaamscha Samharan iti vaa Praananilayah – At the time of dissolution all beings get reabsorbed in Him, hence He is called Praananilayah, the final resting place of all at the time of deluge’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar defines Praana as ‘Praananti iti Praanah, anye’pi Jivah –Those that live, namely the Jivas and nilayam means abode. Sri Parasara Bhattar gives the analogy of the birds going to their nest at the end of the day for rest. Similarly, the Jivas have Him as their abode.

Sri NammAzhwar in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (10.9.9) says – ‘Vaikuntham puguvadu mannavarvidiye’ meaning ‘Vaikuntham is our final Abode’.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan uses the same analogy, and explains the Nama in terms of Bhagavan’s Avataar as Krishna – ‘He in Whom the Gopis sought support as a result of the intense love of devotion to Him, just as the birds seek shelter in their nest – Praananti tat- snehamritena sambandhavateti Praanah tat-preyasIjanaah te nileeyante asmin Sakunta iva nilde iti Praananilayah’.

Since Bhagavan is the Support of all, and since they all merge into Him ultimately, He is called Praana-nilayah. The term ‘nilina’ means ‘merging with or merging into’. Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha interprets this Namain this context – ‘Praana nileeyante yasmin sa Praana-nilayah – He in Whom all the Jivas merge.

Sri Vasishtha also comments that Bhagavan has this Nama because He makes provision for the living of all living beings in whichever form it is appropriate for them. For example, He provides the means for the sustenance and survival of the trees, the beings in the water and in the land, the humans, etc. – in other words, He makes provisions for different Jivas to live or have an abode – sa sarveshaam shtaavara ja’ngamanam ca yatha yogay Saadhana pradaanena vaasayita’tah sa Praana-nilayah ucyate.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama as: ‘He in Whom all Praanas stand established. He Who is the very substratum – vital foundation – for all ‘activities’ manifested in a living organism’.

  1.    Praana-bhrit – He sustains All the Beings

Praana is life and bhrit means supporter or sustainer. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Poshayan Annarupena Praanan Praanabhrit – He sustains life in the form of food, hence He is called Praanabhrit, the sustainer of life’.

Taittriya Upanishad Mantra says ‘Aham annam Aham annam Aham annam – God is food and food is God’.

Another version of this name is ‘Praanadhrit’ with approximately the same meaning ‘the nourisher of life’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is ‘taan maatr-vat dhaarayati ca iti Praana-Dhrit – He Who nourishes the living beings like a mother’.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers us to Sri NammAzhwar, who praises Bhagavan as ‘Our mother, Our father, Our soul’ in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (2.6.10):
போகின்றகாலங்கள்போயகாலங் கள்போகுகாலங்கள், தாய்தந்தையுயி
ராகின்றாய் உன்னைநானடைந்தேன்விடுவேனோ,
பாகின்றதொல்புகழ்மூவுலகுக்கும் நாதனே. பரமா, தண்வேங்கட
மேகின்றாய்தண்டுழாய் விரைநாறுகண்ணியனே.
Meaning: My Lord of eternal glory, Great Lord of the three worlds!  My Lord of fragrant Tulasi garland, king of the cool Venkatam hill through past, present and future, my father my mother, my life!  Now that I have found you, will I ever let you go?

Praana means life, and the word Dhrit is derived from the root ‘dhr – dharane’ meaning ‘to hold, to support, or to bear’. Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives the interpretation – Sarvatra vyaaptah sarveshaam praaninam Praanan bibharti poshayati, dharayati va sah Praana-Bhrit – He Who pervades everything, and nourishes and supports everything is PraanaBhrit’.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama as: ‘He Who rules over all Praanas – Sri Hari is the One Who causes everyone to eat, digest, feel energized, act, achieve the fruits thereof, grow old and die. In all these activities, the great One, Commanding, Factor, Divine, Sri Narayana, the Self, presides in silent detachment, and by His presence He initiates and maintains all these activities in all living creatures upon the Earth’s surface’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives the following interpretation – Praanan indriyaani bibharti iti Praana-Bhrit – He Who nourishes and supports the indriyas and life is Praanabhrit.

  1.    Praana-Jivanah – He Who nourishes the Beings

Prana refers to living beings and Jivanah means the Life Giver. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Praanino Jivayan Praanakhyaih Pavanaih Praanajivanah – He makes people live by providing vital airs like Praana and Apana, hence he is called Praanajeevanah, the one who infuses life into beings’.

In support, he quotes from Katha Upanishad (2.2.5) which says:
Na praanena naapaanena martyo jivati kashcana |
Itareṇa tu jivanti, yasminn etav upashritau ||
Meaning: Life is not enabled by the vital airs Praana or Apaana but is enabled by Bhagavan who supplies these vital airs to sustain life, hence He is the real Praanajeevanah, the Life Giver.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as: ‘taan anna paaniyAdivat Jivayati iti PraanaJivanah’ – He Who supports life even as food and drink do.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan comments that even the food and the water etc., have their power to sustain life only because He has given them this power.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers us to a Pasuram from Sri NammAzhwar, where Azhwar declares in Thiruvai Mozhi (6.7.1) that for devotees like him, Bhagavan is verily the food that is eaten, the drink that is consumed, etc. In other words, they will not live with out Him:
உண்ணுஞ் சோறு பருகுநீர் தின்னும்வெற் றிலையுமெல்லாம்
கண்ணன், எம்பெருமான் னென்றென் றேகண்கள் நீர்மல்கி,
மண்ணினுள் அவன்சீர் வளம்மிக் கவனூர் வினவி,
திண்ண மென்னிள மான்புகு மூர்திருக் கோளூரே.
Meaning: Emperumaan Kannan is the food that we consume, the water that we drink, and the betel leaves that we chew after food’. He is the tarakam (sustenance), poshakam (nurturing), and bhogyam (enjoyment) for His devotee.

Sri Krishnan comments that Bhagavan offers Himself as the food for the true devotees, and they cannot live without Him, and so He is their life or Jivanam, hence He is Praana-Jivanah.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives an interpretation that has the same spirit:
‘Praanan Jivan bhajana parayanan jivayati sva-darshana daanenaiti PraanaJivanah – He Who rejuvenates His devotees who sing His praise, by revealing Himself to them’.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri notes that life is not the vital air, or the body, or the mind, by itself. It is a mysterious amalgam of all of these that causes life, and this is made possible by Bhagavan alone, and nothing else. So, He is the true Support of Life, or the Giver of Life to every living being.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha’s interpretation is: Praanena mukhya praanena Jivayati janaan iti Praana Jivanah – He Who sustains Life through the vital airs.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan explains the Nama as: ‘Praanah te Jiva Namasya iti Praana-Jivanah’ – He Who has His devotees as His Praana or Life. Bhagavan treats those who are dear to Him as His own Atma, as demonstrated in His affection to His devotees.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives several supporting mantras from the Shruti:
yo asya sarva janmana Ishe sarvasya ceshtatah |
atandro brahmana dhirah praano ma nu tishtatu ||(Atharva.11.4.24)
Meaning: I pray to Praana, alert and resolute, Who is the Lord of all and who is responsible for the activities of all in this Universe of various beings that move and work.

Praanaya namo yasya sarva idam vashe | (Atharva. 11.4.1) – Homage to Praana under whose control everything in this Universe exists.

Praanam Ahur maatarishvaanam vaato ha Praana ucyate |
Praane ha Bhutam bhavyam ca praane sarvam pratishtitam ||(Atharva. 11.4.15)
Meaning: Praana is bestowed on maatarishvan, also known as the wind (Vaayu – air). On this Praana depend the past, the future and everything in the present.

There are different dimensions to supporting the life forms, starting from giving a body to the Jivas, giving them the vital airs for survival, the food to eat, the water to drink, the mind to think, the indriyas to act with, etc., all functioning in a coordinated and highly regulated way, till death parts the body and the soul. Between the Namas Praana-dah, Praana-Dhrit or Praana-Bhrit, and Praana-Jivanah, it is evident that all these function because of Him, and thus He is the sole Creator, Protector, and the Destroyer.

  1.    Tattvam – He Who is the Essence

The word ‘Tattvam’ means ‘the ultimate principle’ from which everything else can be derived. Sri Adi Sankara interprets it as ‘Tattvam Tathyam Amritam Satyam Paramaarthatah Satattvam iti ete Ekaarthavaachinah Pramaarthasato Bramhano vaachakaah Shabdaah – The words Tattva, Amrita (immortality), Satyam(Truth), Paramaartha (the Ultimate meaning), and Satattva (Pure existence) are synonyms, and mean the Supreme Brahman and hence He is called Tattvam’. Tattvam means the ultimate unique core substance of the Universe, which is Bhagavan, and hence He is known as Tattvam.

Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the term ‘Tattvam’ as ‘Saraamsha’ – and this is translated as ‘essence’, or ‘the principle of the Universe’ by the translators.  Sri Bhattar explains the Nama through an example: ‘dadhi dugdhayoriva dadhisaarah cit acitoh vyaapti prayojanAbhyaam saraamshah Tattvam’ – Like butter which is the essence of milk and curd, Bhagavan, by His pervasiveness and usefulness in the sentient and non-sentient things, is the essence of all things. Butter gives texture, taste, the energy content, etc., to milk and curd. Similarly, Bhagavan is the essence of all things, by being the cause of their existence, the source of their sustenance etc.

Sri Bhattar gives the following support for his interpretation:
Param Artham Asheshasya jagatah prabhavapyayam |
Saranyam Saranam gacchan Govindam naavasidati ||
Meaning: Govinda is the true entity and He is the cause of creation, destruction, as well as protection. If a person seeks refuge in Him, he will never be in grief.

ekato va jagat kritsnam ekato vajanardanah |
saarato jagatah kritsnaat atirikto Janaardanah ||
Meaning: Place the entire Universe in one pan of a balance, and Bhagavan Janaardana in another, and you will find that Janaardana is superior to the whole Universe because of His intrinsic greatness.

Sri Andal refers to Him as ‘Tattuvan’ in Naacchiyaar Thirumozhi 5.6:
எத்திசை யுமம ரர்பணிந் தேத்தும் இருடீகே சன்வலி செய்ய
முத்தன்ன வெண்முறு வற்செய்ய வாயும் முலயு மழகழிந் தேன்நான்
கொத்தலர் காவில் மணித்தடம் கண்படை கொள்ளு மிளங்குயி லேஎன்
தத்துவ னைவரக் கூகிற்றி யாகில் தலையல்லால் கைம்மாறி லேனே
Meaning: Andal is asking the bird to go and tell the Lord – the Tattuvan, of her condition – By the pain inflicted on me by Hrishikesa, the Lord of the celestials, I have lost my pearly smile, my red lips and my beautiful breasts. O Young Koel nestling in a cozy nook amid bunches of flowers, if you call my honourable Lord, I will bow my head in gratitude.

Another Pasuram in which Sri NammAzhwar describes Bhagavan being the essence of everything that exists, is in Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram 6.9.7:
உலகில் திரியும் கரும கதியாய் உலகமாய்,
உலகுக்கேகேயோ ருயிரு மானாய்! புறவண்டத்து,
அலகில் பெலிந்த திசைபத் தாய அருவேயோ!
அலகில் பொலிந்த அறிவி லேனுக் கருளாயே.
Meaning:  You are the karmic souls roaming the Earth, You are the soul of the world itself.  You are the formless ten spheres and the spirit beyond, Pray grace this tiny self of infinite ignorance.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha derives the word ‘Tat’ from the root ‘tanu – vistare’ meaning ‘to extend, to spread, to go’. Tanyata iti tat, sthavara jangamAtmakam jagat, tasya saara Bhutam vastu tat-tvam ityarthah – This Universe is denoted by the term ‘tat’, which consists of movable and immovable things spread all over; the essence of all this is tat-tvam.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives the following from the Atharva Veda in support:
Yo vidyat sutram yasminnotahpraja imah |
Sutram sutrasya yo vidyat sa vidyat Brahmanam mahat || (Atharva. 10.8.37)
Meaning: One who knows the drawn-out string whereon all these creatures are strung, one who knows the thread’s thread, knows the Great Brahman.

That without the support or existence of which a given thing cannot function, can be considered to be its Tattvam, its essence or support. Thus, for a machinery, the oil or lubricant is something without which it cannot function for a prolonged time, and so it can be considered one of its Tattvas. Everything in this universe that functions will not exist without Him, and so He is the Tattva behind all that exist.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives the reference from Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (8.1.7):
இறந்ததும் நீயே எதிர்ந்ததும் நீயே நிகழ்வதோ நீயின்னே யானால்,
சிறந்தநின் தன்மை யதுவிது வுதுவென் றறிவொன்றும் சங்கிப்பன் வினையேன்,
கறந்தபால் நெய்யே! நெய்யின் சுவையே. கடலினுள் அமுதமே, அமுதில்
பிறந்தவின் சுவையே! சுவையது பயனே! பின்னைதோள் மணந்தபே ராயா!
Meaning: O’ my Lord, who took Nappinnai’s slender soft arms in embrace,  O’ Lord sweet as fresh milk and freshly churned butter!  O’ Lord sweet as the ocean’s ambrosia!  O’ Past, present and Future!  no, the taste of the nectar; no, no, You are the pleasure that one derives from enjoying the nectar!

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan refers us to the following from the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 10 Verse 41) in support of His being the Tattvam behind everything:
Yad-yad vibhutimat sattvam Srimad-Urjitameva va |
Tat-tad-evavagaccha tvam mama tejo’msha sambhavah ||
Meaning: Whatever being is possessed of power, or splendor, or energy, know that as coming from a fragment of My power.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri gives another view of the term ‘Tattvam’ – that which leads to existence, and that which does not cease to exist when the being that came into existence disappears, is the true origin or source – the Tattva. The other sources that disappear over time, are not the true Cause. He comments that ‘tat’ is the word-form of Brahman that is the true cause of everything. tat-tvam is the nature of this ‘tat’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj refers us to the Narayana Upanishad – Tattvam Narayanah parah – Narayana is the Supreme Reality.

  1.    Tattva-vit – The Knower of Truth

‘Tattvam’ means the ultimate underlying principle of everything and Vit is one who knows. With this Sri Adi Sankara interprets this name as ‘Tattvam Svaroopam Yathaavat Vetti iti Tattvavit – He knows the real underlying nature of everything which is himself hence he is called Tattvavit, the knower of the fundamental truth’. He himself is the fundamental truth and he himself is the knower of it. Bhagavan alone knows the functions of creation, preservation, destruction, giving the benefits to the Jivas according to their karmas, taking the Jiva to Him ultimately at the appropriate time, etc., and no one else does. 

Tattvam tatsvarupam vetti iti Tattva-vit – ‘He Who knows the true nature of Himself’. Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘Atmanah Tattvam vetti iti Tattva- vit’ – ‘One Who knows the truth about Himself’, or One Who knows the truth about the Tattva. The truth that Bhagavan is the Supreme Deity and the Lord of all, is something that is not easily understood even by the likes of Brahma, Rudra and Indra, as repeatedly pointed out by Sri NammAzhwar:

  • Surar arivu aru nilai (Thiruvai Mozhi 1.1.8) – He is of such nature that even the Devas cannot understand His Tattvam.
  • Unarndu unarndu unarilum uyar nilai unarvadu aridu uyigaal! (Thiruvai Mozhi 1.3.6) – It is just not easy, even with intense contemplation, to understand the true nature of the Supreme Deity.

Sri Bhattar refers to the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 10 Verse 15), in which Arjuna declares (after witnessing the Vishwarupam) that Bhagavan knows Himself by His Own Self:
Svayameva Atman Atmanam vetthatvam Purushottama |
Bhuta bhavana Bhutesha devadeva jagatpate ||
Meaning: O’ Supreme Person, O’ Creator of beings, O Lord of all beings, O God of all Devas, O’ Ruler of the Universe, You alone know Yourself by Your own potencies.

Sri Bhattar also refers to the Sruti vakyam – ‘tvameva tvam vettha’ – You alone are aware of Yourself’.

It is not just the ordinary mortals like us who can’t fully comprehend Him through our intellect, but even the Shastras return back declaring that He is beyond description. The Taittiriya Upanishad declares: Yato vaco nivatante, aprapaya manasa saha (Anandavalli) – Words, alongwith the mind, turn back without being able to fully comprehend the Bliss of Brahman, which is Infinite. The Devas are unable to fully know Him, as we have seen through Sri NammAzhwar’s Pasurams above.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s words: ‘tanakkum tan tanmai ariya ariyanai’ – He whose greatness is such that even He does not know it fully.

Alavandar declares in his stotra ratnam: ‘yasyaste mahimanam Atmana iva tat- vallbho’piprabhuh’ – Neither Bhagavan’s greatness nor Piratti’s greatness can be known either by Him or by Her, because there is no limit to it, and so even they cannot measure something that has no limit. The point is that of all those who can know Him, He knows Himself the most.

  1.    Ekatma – The One and Only Superior Soul

Eka means one and Atma means Soul. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Ekashcha Asau Atma cha Ekatma – He is the One and the only true Soul and hence He is called Ekatma’.

In support, He quotes from Aitareya Upanishad (1.1) which says ‘Atma Vaa Idameka Evaagra Aaseet – He was the only Soul existing at the beginning of all Creation’.

He also quotes from Linga Puranam ‘Yachhaapnoti Yadaadatte Yacchaatti Vishayaaniha; Yachhaasya Santato Bhaavah Tasmaat Aatmeti Geeyate – That which pervades, that which receives, that which enjoys the objects, and that which exists always, is called the Atman’. This shows the uniqueness of the Prime Soul, which is Bhagavan thus known as Ekatma.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains that Bhagavan is the One and only Supreme Soul who controls all the other souls, and so He is Ekatma – sarvasya cit acit vargasya ayam ekaeva Seshi bhokta abhimanau ca iti Ekatma – He is Ekatma because He is the Sole Master, Enjoyer, and Well-wisher of all sentient and non-sentient objects.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers us to Sri NammAzhwar’s Pasuram, where Bhagavan is called ‘Or uyireyu!’ – which is ‘translated’ by Sri V. N. Vedanta Desikan as ‘Ekatma’.
ஆருயி ரேயோ! அகலிடம் முழுதும் படைத்திடந் துண்டுமிழ்ந் தளந்த,
பேருயி ரேயோ. பெரியநீர் படைத்தங் குறைந்தது கடைந்தடைத் துடைத்த,
சீரிய ரேயோ.மனிசர்க்குத் தேவர் போலத்தே வர்க்கும்தே வாவோ,
ஓருயி ரேயோ. உலகங்கட் கெல்லாம் உன்னைநான் எங்குவந் துறுகோ?
Meaning: The vast Universe was created, once dug out from deep waters (Varaha Avataar), swallowed (Pralaya), spat out (Creation after Pralaya), scaled with feet (Trivikrama Avataar), all by You, out of grace. You made the seas, churned them (Kurma Avataar, Mohini Avataar), bridged the ocean (Rama Avataar), and broke a part of it later. You are my dear life. You are the Lord of all the Devas, and You are far above the Devas just as the Devas are far above the humans. You’re are the Supreme Soul above all the other souls, the Creator, Protector and Destroyer of the Universe. How am I to reach You? Pray tell me.

Nityo nityanam cetanash- cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadati kaman – He Who is the Most Eternal above all the eternals, the Supreme above all the cetanas, the One Who constitutes the many, and the One Who bestows all the wishes of all the other beings.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as: ‘evanca sa Vishnureva sarvasya sthavara jangama rupasya vishvasya EkaAtma sarvatra vyaptatvat Ekatma’ – Lord Vishnu, who pervades everything in this Universe of sentient and non-sentient objects, is called Ekatma.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains the Nama as ‘Eka Atma mukhya swamI = He is the Supreme Deity.

  1.    Janma-mrityu-jaraatigah – He Who is beyond birth, death and old age

‘Janma’ means ‘Birth’, ‘Mrityu’ means ‘Death’ and Jaraa means ‘Old Age’. The word ‘Atigah’ stands for Ateetya Gacchati, One who rises above or transcends. Taking all of this together, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Jaayate, Asti, Vardhate, Viparinamate, Apaksheeyate, Nashyati iti ShadbhavaVikaaraan Ateetya Gacchati iti JanmaMrityuJaraatigah – There are six stages and since He transcends these six kinds of changes, namely conception, birth, growth, maturity, decay and death, He is called JanmaMrityuJaraatigah, the one who transcends birth, death and infirmity’.

Katha Upanishad (1.2.18) says ‘Na jaayate Mriyate Vaa Vipashchit iti – the One who is pure knowledge does not take birth, nor subject to death’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as One Who is beyond birth, death, decay etc. His interpretation is – tathapi tad-ubhaya vidharmAtma – He Who, while being the Inner Soul or antaryami of all the sentient and non-sentient objects, is not affected by their attributes (such as rajas, tamas, punya, paapa etc.). The ordinary souls accumulate the effects of the Punyas and Paapas that they accrue while they are embodied. Unlike these souls, Bhagavan is not touched by any of these effects of Punyas and Paapas even though He is the antaryami of all these objects. In addition, when He assumes a body out of His own free will, He is not born like the rest of us, and is not subject to aging, death etc. like the rest of us.

It is important to understand the difference between the body and the soul to appreciate the meaning of this Nama. Ordinary souls (Jivas) also are beyond birth, death and decay. But they get a body based on their previous karmas, to enable them to enjoy the effects of these karmas. This body is subject to birth, death and decay. The Jivas go through repeated births and deaths, with the associated new bodies, until they exhaust all their karmas, and ultimately realize the ParamAtman and are relieved of this cycle of birth and death. Bhagavan is not subject to this cycle, since He is not touched by the effects of karma ever. Lord Krishna declares in the the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 4 Verse 14):
na mam karmani limpanti na mekarma phale spriha |
iti mam yo’bhijanati karmabhir na sa badhyate ||
Meaning: There is no work that affects Me; nor do I aspire for the fruits of action. One who understands this truth about Me also does not become entangled in the fruitive reactions of work.

Even though He has all the sentient and non-sentient beings as His body according to the VishishtAdvaita philosophy, Sri Parasara Bhattar explains that Bhagavan is still not touched by the karmas (namely, sins, good deeds, the resulting birth, death etc,), of these sentient and non-sentient beings, but instead, it is the souls of these beings that get the effects of these karmas. The bodies of all the sentient and non-sentient beings are part of His body in the sense that they are all subservient to Him and are fully under His control.

So are the souls of all these beings – they are His body, and are subservient to Him. He is the antaryami of these souls, and is a witness and the energizer of these souls; however, He is not touched by their karmas, and so He is never born, and so there is no question of aging, death etc. There is no such thing as karma for Him, since all His actions are all selfless, and are devoted to the benefit of all the beings that exist. None of His actions are for His benefit.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha refers us to Atharva Veda that conveys the sense of this Nama:
akamo dhiro amrutah svayambhu rasen trupte na kutashpa nonah |
tameva vidvan na vibhaya mrutyor-atman dhirmajar yuvanana ||
Meaning: Desireless, firm, immortal, self-existent, contented with the essence, lacking nothing, free from fear of death is He who knows that Soul courageous, youthful and undecaying’.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri gives the following from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (4.4.25) in support: sa va esha mahaanaja Atmajaro’maro Amṛto’bhayo Brahma;
abhayaṃ vai brahma;
abhayaṃ hi vai brahma bhavati ya evaṃ veda ||
Meaning: That infinite birthless undecaying, indestructible immortal, and fearless self (ParamAtman) is the Supreme Brahman. The Supreme Brahman is devoid of fear. He who knows that Supreme Brahman becomes the fearless Brahman.

The Story of Two Birds from the Mundaka Upanishad (3.3.1)


Two birds living together, each the friend of the other, perch upon the same tree. Of these two, one eats the sweet fruit of the tree, but the other simply looks on without eating.

The two birds are the Jivatma and ParamAtma, both existing in an individual compared to a tree. They exist together as the reflection and the original. They both manifest themselves in different ways in every individual. From the characteristics of the Jivatma it is possible to infer the nature of ParamAtma, and from the nature of ParamAtma it is possible to determine the potentialities of the Jivatma. Both the Jivatma and ParamAtma have a common substratum which is Brahman and which is the reality of both. The body is compared to a tree because it can be cut down like a tree. This tree is also called the Kshetra or the field of manifestation and action of the Kshetrajna or the knower of the field. The body is the field of action and experience and it is the fruit of actions done already.

That which distinguishes the Jivatma from ParamAtma is the mind. In fact, the mind itself constitutes the Jiva. It is the Jiva that is affected by Avidya, Kama and Karma. Because of the conjunction of consciousness with these limiting factors, it has to experience the results of its actions; but ParamAtma, who is not limited to any adjunct, has no actions whatsoever to perform, and so, no need to experience of the results of actions. The fruits enjoyed by the Jivatma are of the nature of pleasure and pain, i.e., they are all relative experiences born of non-discrimination. The experience of ParamAtma is eternal and is of the nature of purity, knowledge and freedom. Relative experience is the effect of the presence of Rajas, but the character of ParamAtma is Sattva and, hence, there is no phenomenal experience for Him. He is in fact the director of both the agent of actions and the results of actions. ParamAtma’s activity consists in His mere existence. The value of His existence is greater than that of the activity of the whole Universe. It is His existence that actuates the whole Universe of manifestation.

In Summary

Pramaanam Praananilayah Praanabhrit Praanajivanah |
Tattvam Tattvavid Ekatma Janma-Mrityu-Jaraatigah ||103||

He is the authentic source for everything and sets the standards for righteous action, hence He is called Pramaanam. He is the ultimate abode for all beings, hence He is known as Praananilayah. He sustains all sentient and non-sentient beings, hence He is Praanabhrit.  He is the Life Giver as well as the in-dweller, so He is Praanajivanah.

He is the source, essence and the truth, hence He is called Tattvam. He is the knower of the Truth and so He is Tattvavid.  He is the one and only Superior Soul (Purusha), hence He is Ekatma.  He is beyond birth, death and old age, so He is Janma-Mrityu-Jarratigah.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

 HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.

SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 102) – PART 111

In this part, we will explore the meaning of the 102nd Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


Aadhaaranilayo Dhata Pushpahaasah Prajaagarah                 |
Urdhvagah Satpathacharah Praanadah Pranavah Panah ||102||

Purport
He supports the five basic elements and He is the Creator. He blooms Himself into a Universe like a flower and is ever alert and awake to His devotees’ needs.  He is above all and He follows the path of Dharma, leading by example in His Avataars.  He is the Life-Giver and is the Primordial Mantra – ‘AUM’. He delivers the fruits of actions in accordance with one’s Karmas and He is bound by His devotees’ love, and is ready to be subservient to them.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1.    Aadhaaranilayah
  2.    Dhata (or Adhata)
  3.    Pushpahaasah
  4.    Prajaagarah
  5.    Urdhvagah
  6.    Satpathacharah
  7.    Praanadah
  8.    Pranavah
  9.    Panah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1.    Adhaara-nilayah – The Abode of those who support the world through their righteous actions

The word Aadhaara means support and Nilaya means vesting or staying.  Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Prithivyaadeenam Pancha bhutaanaam Aadhaaranam Aadhaaratvaat Aadhaaranilayah – He supports the five basic elements or the Pancha Bhutas such as the Earth, Air, Water, Fire and Ether, that support all others, hence He is called Aadhaaranilayah, the basic support or the support for all that supports the Universe’. 

Sri Parasara Bhattar specifically gives the example of the likes of Prahlada, Vibhishana, the Pandavas, etc., whose righteous conduct in life is an example for us, and thus serve as the support for the world to follow. Bhagavan is the abode for such pious men, and so He is called Adhaara-nilayah – Dharmikataya jagad-Adhaarah Prahlada-Vibhishana-Pandavadayah, tesham nilayah Ahdaara-nilayah.

Sri Parasara Bhattar quotes a Shloka from Vishnu Smriti in support:
Varnashrama Acara-parah santahshaastraika tatparaah |
tvam dhare! dhaarayishyanti teshu tvad bhaaram Ahitam ||
Meaning: O’ Mother Earth! Those who strictly adhere to the rules of conduct stipulated for different varnas and stages of life, and also scrupulously follow the dictates of the Shastras, enjoy your support.

The ones who follow righteous actions also keep this earth keeps going; these are the ones who are supported by Bhagavan in their Dharmic conduct – Adhaara-nilayah.

Sri NammAzhwar in his Periya Thiruvandadhi Pasuram (75), gives a very interesting perspective where he says:
புவியும் இருவிசும்பும் நினகத்த, நீயென்
செவியின் வழிபுகுந்தென் னுள்ளாய்,- அவிவின்றி
யான்பெரியன் நீபெரியை என்பதனை யாரறிவார்,
ஊன்பருகு நேமியாய்! உள்ளு.
Meaning: It is true that You support everything including all the worlds, the skies, etc. But now You reside inside me by entering inside me through my ears, and thus I am supporting You inside me. Now You tell me whether You are supporting me or I am supporting You – whether You are the bigger One or I am the bigger one. You tell me, Emperumaan with the Chakra that drinks the blood of Your enemies.

The above Pasuram of Azhwar gives an alternative interpretation that Bhagavan resides in the hearts and minds of those who follow Dharmic path (Adhaara), and so He has the Nama Adhaara-nilayah.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 7 Verse 18) Bhagavan says:
Udarah sarva evaite jnani tva atmaiva me matam
Asthitah sa hi yuktatma mam evanuttamam gatim ||
Meaning: All these devotees are indeed generous, but he who is situated in knowledge of Me, I consider him to be My own very self; for he is devoted to Me attains highest end.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as – Jagad Adhaaranaam api dhaaraka iti Adhaara-nilayah – He is the support of all those that are considered to be supporting the world e.g. Sun, Earth etc. This means that He supports all that exists including the Devas such as Brahma, Rudra, Indra etc. and all the Planets and their Moons, the Pancha Maha bhutas, etc. He is also present in every living being as their antaryami, supporting them in every act of theirs.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives numerous examples from the Shruti in support:
Yatah Surya udetyastam yatraca gacchati |
Tadeva manye’ham jyeshTham tadu nAtyeti ki’ncana || (atharva. 10.8.16)
Meaning: I am that Supreme because of which the Sun rises, sets, and rests. Nothing surpasses the Will of this Supreme.

Na te Vishno jayamano na jato deva mahimnah paramantamapa |
Udastabhna naakamrshvam brihantam daadhartha praacim kakubham Prithivyaah || (Rg. 7.99.2)
Meaning: None who is born or being born has reached the utmost limit of Your grandeur, Lord Vishnu. The vast high vault of heaven and the fixed earth’s eastern pinnacle has your support and you hold it securely.

Yasyorushu trishuvikramaneshu adhikshiyanti bhuvanani Vishva (Rig Veda. 1.154.2)
Meaning: He within whose three wide-extended paces all living creatures have their habitation.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri interprets the Nama as ‘One Who is resident -nilayah, in the pancha bhutas. Even though the five elements, by themselves, perform different functions within our body (e.g., agni converts the food that we consume into forms such as blood; water carries this into the different parts of the body; earth supports all the beings of this world; etc.), Bhagavan, by being present in these elements, ensures that there is mutual coordination such that all beings function as a unit, in a healthy way.

Sri Shastri gives references from the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 15 Verses 13 and 14) to illustrate this:
Gam avisya ca bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa |
Pusnami causadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakah ||
Meaning: I enter into each planet, and by My energy they stay in orbit. I become the Moon and thereby supply the juice of life to all plant life.

Aham Vaishvanaro bhutva praaninaamdeham Ashritah |
Praanapana samayuktah pacamyannam catur-vidham  ||
Meaning: I am the fire of digestion in every living body, and I am the air of life, incoming and outgoing breath. I digest the four kinds of food – chewed (like rice, bread etc.), sucked (like mango fruit etc.), licked (like honey), and drunk (like water).

In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (3.7.15), it says:
Yah sarveshu bhuteshu tishthan sarvebhyo bhutebhyo’ntaro yam sarvani bhutani na viduh
Yasya sarvani bhutani shariram yah sarvani bhutaanyantaro yamayati |
Yesha ta Atmantaryamyamrutah – ityadhi-bhutam athadhyaatmam    ||
Meaning: He who inhabits all beings but is within them, whom no being knows, whose body is all beings, and who controls all beings from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the beings. Now with reference to the body.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives an explanation based on the dhaara or the downpour of rain caused by Indra in Gokulam:
A-samantaat dhaara = devendra-krita vrishti dhaara yesham ta Adhaara Gopalah |
Tesham Govardhana dhaaranena nilaya Ashraya iti Adhaara-nilayah ||
Meaning: He Who protected the Gopalas or cowherds from the intense downpour of rain caused by Devendra, through the Govardhana dhaaranam.

  1.    Dhaata – He is the Creator

Sri Adi Sankara deals with two different versions of this Nama – Dhaata and Adhaata. First taking it as Dhaata, the root is Dhet meaning ‘to drink’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets it as ‘Samhaarasamaye Sarvaah Prajaah Dhayati Pibati iti Dhaata; Dhet Paane iti Dhaatuh – At the time of the Final Deluge He drinks (dissolves) all beings, hence He is called Dhaata’.

Now taking the name as Adhaataa, Sri Adi Sankara gives the interpretation ‘Sva-atmanaa Dhritasya asya Anyo dhaataa Naasti iti – He is well established and has no other support other than Himself, hence He is called Adhaata, one who is self-reliant’.

We covered this Nama earlier in Shloka 5 where Sri Parasara Bhattar interpreted the Nama based on the root ‘dha’ meaning ‘to put, place, lay, put in, lay on or upon’, and gave the meaning as ‘The Creator’.

Sri Bhattar gives the interpretation for this instance as ‘Svayam ca Dharma Acharyakena Dhaata – He is called Dhaata because He practices Dharma rigorously, and is thus the best Preceptor of Dharma.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives reference support from the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 3 Verse 22), where Bhagavan says:
Na me parthasti kartavyam trisu lokesu kincana
Nanavaptam avaptavyam varta eva ca karmani ||
Meaning: O’ Partha! There is nothing in all the three worlds which ought to be done, nor is there anything that has not been acquired, and ought to be acquired. Yet I am engaged in work.

Sri AnnangarAcharya explains the Nama as – He Who supports the World through His teachings (in the form of Vedas, Upanishads, GIta etc.), and through His own code of conduct (during His Avataars). As Maryada Purushottam Rama, He was an outstanding example of the adherence to Dharma in all its facets and intricacies.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha uses the root for the Nama as ‘dha – dhaarana poshanoyoh daane ca’ meaning ‘to put, to grant, to produce, to bear’.  Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives the interpretation that Bhagavan bears the Earth in the form of Ananta – ‘Anantadi rupena Vishvam bibharti iti Dhaata’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives the interpretation – ‘dadhaati poshayati svajanaan iti Dhaata – He Who protects and supports His devotees’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives the interpretation – Dhaata = dhaarana poshanakarta – He Who creates and nourishes everything.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan explains the Nama as – utpatti vinaasha virahaadanaadi nidhanah kaaranatve virinci Adibhyo vishesham Aha Dhaata iti – He Who creates all beings, protects them, and destroys them at the appropriate time.

  1.    Pushpa-haasah – He blooms like a Flower

Pushpa is a flower and Haasa refers to the blooming and so Pushpahaasah is one who blossoms like a flower. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this name as ‘Mukulaatmanaa Sthitaanaam Pushpaanaam haasavat Prapancharupena Vikaasah asya iti Pushpahaasah – Like buds bloom into beautiful flowers, Bhagavan blooms Himself into a beautiful Universe, hence He is called Pushpahaasah, one who blooms like a flower’.

Haasa also means a smile and Pushpahaasah can also be interpreted to mean one who smiles like a pretty flower. The Nama signifies the tenderness and pleasing nature of Bhagavan towards His devotees.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as – ‘evam nishpaadita sva anubhava saktinaam saayamiva pushpasya haaso bhogyataullaasah asya iti Pushpa- haasah’ – In the case of those who are blessed with the ability to enjoy Him, He manifests His enjoyable nature gently like a flower that blossoms. So He is called Pushpa-haasah.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri’s anubhavam is that Bhagavan makes His devotees blossom with delight at His thought, and He also blossoms in their heart and gives fragrance to their thought, and so He is called Pushpa-haasah.

Bhagavan’s Thirumeni is soft to touch, just like a flower. Just as the flowers blossom as the Sun rises , Bhagavan is delighted when He sees His devotees. His devotees enjoy Him like a beautiful tender flower.

Sri Thirumangai Azhwar in his Periya Thirumozhi (8.1.5), where the Azhwar enjoys Bhagavan’s Thirumeni as Pushpa-haasam:
அடித்தலமும் தாமரையே அங்கையும் பங்கயமே என்கின் றாளால்,
முடித்தலமும் பொற்பூணு மென்நெஞ்சத் துள்ளகலா என்கின் றாளால்,
வடித்தடங்கண் மலரவளோ வரையாகத் துள்ளிருப்பாள் என்கின் றாளால்,
கடிக்கமலம் கள்ளுகுக்கும் கண்ணபுரத் தம்மானைக் கண்டாள் கொல்லோ.
Meaning: His Feet are soft like Lotus flowers. His Hands, with which He picks us up when we surrender at His Feet, are equally soft like Lotus flowers. Then He embraces us with affection, and the divine beauty of His thiru-mudi and His divine ornaments that we get to enjoy at that time, is something that will never leave our thoughts ever. We pray for the blessings of the One with broad eyes (Sri devi) Who is seated on the lotus flower in His broad vaksha sthalam (His chest), so that we are united with Him for ever. This Emperumaan is waiting for us in the Divya kshetram by name Thiruk-kannapuram, which is itself the place full of fragrant Lotus flowers dripping sweet honey.

Sri NammAzhwar in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (3.1.2) says that Bhagavan is enchanting and is no comparison to anything that we know:
கட்டுரைக்கில் தாமரைநின் கண்பாதம் கையொவ்வா,
கட்டுரைத்த நன் பொன்னுள் திருமேனி ஒளி ஒவ்வாது,
ஒட்டுரைத்திவ் வுலகுன்னைப் புகழ்வெல்லாம் பெரும்பாலும்,
பட்டுரையாய்ப் புற்கென்றே காட்டுமால் பரஞ்சோதீ.
Meaning: The Lotus flower is no match for your eyes, hands and feet. Burnished gold is no match for your radiant face.  All the praise of all the worlds heaped on you do very little to compliment your Grace.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives a similar interpretation – ‘Pushpamiva mriduh svajana manohari haaso yasya sa Pushpa-haasah – He Who has a sweet and enchanting smile that delights the hearts of His devotees’.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘yo sadaa prasanna-mukah Soka- rahistashca bhavati, tasmin nishpaape Soka-moha-rahite svayam Bhagavan viraajate sa Vishnuh Pushpa-haasah – He Who is always of a very pleasing disposition, who is beyond any sorrow, untainted by any defects, devoid of any desire or want. He points out that, just as it is the Dharma (nature) of the flower to blossom beautifully, so also it is the nature of Bhagavan to have a sweet and smiling countenance.

  1.    Pra-jaagarah – He Who is awake day and night, for the protection of the devotees.

The root ‘Jagr’ means to ‘be awake’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets as ‘Nitya prabuddha svarupaat Prakarshena Jaagarti iti Prajaagarah – He is naturally ever alert and awake and hence He is called Prajaagarah’. He is ever awake and alert to His devotees’ needs and rushes to their support whenever needed. Even while appearing to sleep on the milky ocean He is internally awake and ready to support the devotees, hence He is appropriately called Prajaagarah, the innately awake person.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘Raatrim divam Prajaagarti iti Pra-jaagarah – He Who is awake day and night, to protect His devotees, like a farmer intent on protecting his crops. He gives a mantra from the Katha Upanishad (2.2.8) – ya eshu supteshu jaagarti kaamamkaamam Purusho Nirmimaanah – This purusha (the Supreme), who builds desire after desire, keeps awake while others (the individual souls) are asleep, is certainly called pure and Immortal. That is the effulgent and that is Brahman.

Sri Krishnan explains this as Bhagavan keeping wide awake while we are all fast asleep, bestowing all our desires and requests that are infinite and neverending. He is always in His Yoga-nidra, fully alert and awake.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the root for the Nama as ‘jaagr – nidraakshaye’ meaning ‘to be awake’ and ‘pra’ is prefix. He explains the Nama as ‘Prakarshena jaagarti iti Pra-jaagarah – He Who is awake in a special and unique way. The uniqueness is that He is always awake, and always thinking of ways to help the Jivas attain Him.

Sri Raghunatha Thirtha gives yet another interpretation as ‘He Who liberates the accomplished devotees from sleep – prakashena bhaktan jagarayati nidra rahitaan muktaan karoti iti Pra-jaagarah’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha looks at the Nama as praja + aga + ra. In this interpretation, praja = He Who creates; aga = He Who resides in the hills of Venkatachala, ra = ramati = He Who enjoys the company of devotees by being in Venkatachala – ‘prakarshena janayati lokaan iti Prajaa; ageshu Venkatadi parvateshu ramata iti aga-rah, prajashca asau agarashcaiti Prajaagarah.

This Guna is also reflected in the world through the Panca bhutas for which He is the antaryami, and He ensures that they are all functioning in the interest of the Jivas constantly – Fire, Water, Earth, Air and Space never sleep.  So also, the Sun never sleeps, the Atma never sleeps, and the Praana never sleeps.

  1.    Urdhva-gah – He Who is above all

The word ‘Urdhva’ means ‘above or on top’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Sarveshaam upari tishthan Urdhvagah – He towers over all, hence is called Urdhvagah’.  Bhagavan is superior to every one in every way and is present everywhere; He knows everything and is ever-lasting. He stands above all in all respects thus He is called Urdhvagah, the one who stands far above.

The term Urdhva means ‘above’. Urdhva-gah means ‘One Who rises high’. Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as a continuation of His explanation of the previous Nama – He Who sleeplessly protects His creation. He devotes Himself to this task of rakshNam even without sleep, because He aims high in whatever He does, and so He is ‘Urdhva-gah’. Sri Bhattar’s words are ‘svabhaavatungah – He Who, by nature, rises high in everything’.  Sri Bhattar extols the Kalyana Guna and narrates that the compassion and affection of Bhagavan is unparalleed. He explains with a story of the Sumukha snake that surrendered Unto the Lord and He ensured the snake’s safety by reconciling its hostility with Garuda.

The Story of Garuda and Sumukha, the snake prince

Garuda always carries a snake in his talons. This story is about why Garuda began carrying this snake wherever he went.

Once upon a time there was a man by the name Matali who was the charioteer for Indra. He had a daughter by the name Gunakesi who was of marriageable age.  Sage Narada introduced Matali, ‘Aaryaka! Meet my friend – Matali.’ The Naga’s eyes grew with astonishment, ‘Matali? The charioteer of Lord Indra?’ Aaryaka welcomed the two of them and after they finished lunch, Aaryaka called his grandson, Sumukha.  A good looking, noble young man walked into the room. As Matali saw the man, he felt that he had found the perfect match for his daughter.

With great joy he spoke for the first time to Aaryaka and Sumukha, ‘I have come here to ask something to the two of you. I have a daughter an extremely talented and beautiful daughter– Guna Kesi! I was wondering whether Sumukha would agree to marry my daughter?’ He asked looking at the two of them.

Matali saw both of them in despair and was stumped. Why would the two of them look so unhappily at each other? He asked, “Why? Is there a problem?’  Aaryaka gave a dry laugh, ‘Problem? You have just offered the most perfect woman to be the wife of my grandson. And I am not in a position to accept it. Yes, you could say I have a problem.’ He continued, ‘The reason Sumukha’s father Chirakha is not here and the reason why Sumukha cannot marry you is Garuda.’

Matali was flabbergasted, ‘Garuda?’ He asked Aaryaka incredulously. Matali sat back and listened as Aaryaka continued, ‘Garuda stole the pot of Amrut from the Devas to give it to the Nagas in return for freedom for himself and his mother Vinata.’ Matali nodded. Garuda came like a storm and blew away all the Devas with his onslaught. Not even a single Deva could stand up against Garuda. Even Indra’s Vajra was useless before Garuda. Matali remembered wryly. 

After handing over the Amrita to the Nagas, both Garuda and Vinata had become free. The only way Indra could make sure the Nagas could not get the Amrita was to make a deal with Garuda. The Nagas had gone to take a bath before taking the Amrut and Indra used the opportune moment and stole the amrita at that time. Aaryaka continued, ‘After that incident, Garuda became a sworn enemies of Nagas. Garuda came here and wreaked havoc on all of us. Nothing we did seemed to work against him. We promised to send him a Naga a month and in return, Garuda was not to attack us indiscriminately. Last month, my son Chirakha, Sumukha’s father was sent to Garuda. This month, Sumukha has to be sent.’ Aaryaka trembled as he looked at his grandson, who was trying his best to look brave.

Matali looked at the two of them. Now more than ever, he was confident that Sumukha was the right choice for his daughter. He smiled as he saw Aaryaka and Sumukha, “There is nothing you can do. But there is something I can.’ As Matali entered Indra’s court at Amravathi, he felt that it was destined that the marriage between Sumukha and Guna Kesi was to take place as he saw sitting in Indra’s court was the beautiful Lord Vishnu. Bowing first to Lord Vishnu, who smiled at him enigmatically, Matali bowed to Lord Indra with Sumukha trailing behind him.

Matali then looked at Indra, ‘My Lord! I have a favour to ask from you. As you know I was searching a good match for my daughter Guna Kesi, I have finally found the perfect match for her. I think Sumukha here is the most perfect man for her.’  Indra vigorously nodded his head. He was feeling very happy for his friend and charioteer. But before he could talk Matali interrupted him, ‘Your Majesty! However I have a problem in the form of Garuda.’

Indra blinked. Garuda? Indra suddenly felt very nervous. He cleared his throat and looked at the Lord Vishnu for support and spoke, ‘Go ahead Matali!’  Matali narrated his predicament to Indra and sought Amrut be given to Sumukha to save his life. Indra looked at Matali deflated. If he handed over the amrita to Sumukha, Garuda could take offence to it.  He turned desperately to Lord Vishnu, ‘Narayana! Please tell me what to do.’

Lord Vishnu smiled, ‘You are the King of the Devas and I cannot make your choices for you. You will have to decide whether or not to give Amrut to Sumukha.’ Indra nodded to himself and thought for some time and finally looked at Sumukha and said, ‘I will give you the Amrut, Sumukha. And I will face the consequences.’ Lord Vishnu smiled at him but did not say anything.  Sumukha and Matali looked visibly relieved.

As Indra came forward and was about to hand over the Amrut to Sumukha, the court door suddenly flew open and Indra had the fright of his life when he saw a ferocious looking Garuda staring angrily at him. Garuda thundered (oblivious of Lord Vishnu’s presence), ‘What are you doing? Have you forgotten the last time we met in battle Indra? I carry the Lord Vishnu himself! Do you know how powerful I am?’ Garuda ranted on and on.

Indra took a deep breath and said calmly, ‘Garuda, you can eat all the other Nagas. He is the only one I have stopped you from eating.’  But Garuda was past hearing all that, ‘Indra! Do you know how strong I am? My feather can carry the weight of the whole world and I carry Lord Vishnu on my back…”

Garuda!’ came a soft voice. Garuda stopped talking immediately, the power of the voice was such. Lord Vishnu spoke, ‘Garuda! I think you need to demonstrate to Indra, exactly how strong you are. Probably that way, Indra would be convinced of your strength and decide not to give Amrut to Sumukha.’ Indra was puzzled even as Garuda went forward towards Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu held out his hands. ‘I think you should carry me and show them.’

Lord Vishnu placed his hands on Garuda’s shoulder. He suddenly felt like the weight of the entire Universe was placed on his shoulder. Garuda broke out in sweat. Lord Vishnu’s hand was on his shoulder and it suddenly felt that he was being pushed down. The weight was becoming unbearable. Garuda grunted and tried but Garuda’s back was burning with pain.

Lord Vishnu looked at Garuda and said, ‘Garuda! You are strong and powerful, no doubt but you have become proud and arrogant! Let that not get into your head. You carry my weight because I let you carry my weight. It is me who carries all of you.’

Lord Vishnu said, ‘Indra was being reasonable. He has the right to give Amrut to who he thinks fit. He is not depriving you of your natural food. Nor is he insulting you. He is just fulfilling the wish of his friend.’

Garuda fell to his knees his eyes streaming from tears and realised the truth in Lord Vishnu’s words. He bowed to Lord Vishnu, ‘My Lord! I behaved arrogantly. Please forgive me.’ Lord Vishnu smiled and blessed Garuda.

Garuda then turned to Indra and sought his forgiveness. Indra had watched the entire spectacle with awe. He nodded his head reverently at Lord Vishnu and smiled at Garuda. Garuda then apologised to Sumukha and exited the court. Sumukha got his Amrut and married Guna Kesi.

Lord Vishnu told Garuda to make friends with the Nagas in the Netherworld. He also told him to carry a Naga in his talons at all times to prove that he is friends with the snakes of the netherworld.  Thus Sumukha’s life was saved.

Om Namo Narayanaaya!

Sri NammAzhwar in his very first Pasuram in Thiruvai Mozhi (1.1.1) describes Him as:
உயர்வற வுயர்நலம் முடையவன் யவனவன்
மயர்வற மதிநலம் அருளினன் யவனவன்
அயர்வறும் அமரர்கள் அதிபதி யவனவன்
துயரறு சுடரடி தொழுதெழென் மனனே
Meaning: Arise, O heart, worship the feet of the One, who is higher than the highest good with all the Kalyana Gunas, who is the Lord of the ever-wakeful celestials, who dispels all doubt and grants pure knowledge.  He Who possesses auspicious qualities that cannot at all be excelled.

Sri Ananta Krishna Shastry gives an alternate interpretation that the Nama signifies that Lord Vishnu is the One Who takes us to Sri Vaikuntham.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha interprets the Nama as ‘Sarvesham Urdhva sthiti Saalitvaat, sarvatah Sreshthatvaat va Urdhva-gah – He who is above everyone in all aspects’.

  1.    Sat-pathaachaarah – One Who leads His devotees in the right path.

The word ‘patha’ means ‘path’ and ‘Sat’ means ‘righteous’. The word ‘Achaara’ is derived from the root ‘Chara – gatau’ means ‘to walk, conduct or behavior’.  Based on these, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Sataam karmaani Satpathaah taan Aacharati eshah iti Satpathaachaarah – He conducts Himself in a righteous manner and hence He is called Satpathaachaarah. He leads by example and in all His incarnations He conducted himself strictly in the path of Dharma as laid out by righteous people and as prescribed by the scriptures.

Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama as ‘One Who leads His devotees in the right path – sat-pathe = svabhavika daasya maarge, Acharanam = tesham pravartanam asya iti Sat-pathaachaarah – He Who guides the devotee in the right path of kainkaryam (service) to Him, which is the true nature of the devotee. It is in the interest of the Jivas to recognise and follow the relationship of Seshaseshibhava (the Master-servant relationship between the Supreme Being and the Jiva), Bhagavan facilitates this, and leads the devotee in this path. Sri Bhattar refers to the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 9 Verse 33) where Lord Krishna says the following to Arjuna:

Kim punar brahmanah punya bhakta rajarsayas tatha  |
Anityam asukham lokam imam prapya bhajasva mam ||
Meaning: How much greater then are the Brahmanas, the righteous, the devotees and saintly kings who in this temporary miserable world (in order to get over it) engage in loving service unto Me.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives an interpretation as ‘sat-pathe = san-maarge Acharayati yogyaan iti Sat- pathaachaarah – He follows the path laid out by the righteous men and leads by example.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri refers to the Bhagavad Gita (3.22), where Bhagavan tells Arjuna that He follows the path followed by the great ones, in His incarnations to set an example for others to follow.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha interprets the Nama as ‘Sat-pathe Achaaro yasya sa SatpathAchaarah – He Whose conduct or behavior is along the righteous path, is Sat-pathachaarah.

  1.    Praana-dah – The Life-Giver

Praana means life and dah is a giver. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this name as ‘Mritaat Parikshit Prabhriteen Jeevayan Praanadah – He revived people like Parikshit from their death, hence He is called Praanadah, the Life-giver’.

He revived the unborn son residing in the womb of Uttara after the foetus was killed by Asvatthaama’s Brahma Astra and thus ensured the continuation of the Pandava race. When His Guru Sandipani’s son died, Krishna went to the abode of Yama to bring him back to life. These incidents establish His Nama as Praanadah, the Life-Giver.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives another example of His giving ‘life’ to the devotees – He confers redemption on those souls that have been poisoned by the indulgence in material pleasures – Atam ujjeevanam dadati iti Praana-dah – He gives a new life to these souls.

The Nirukti author describes this through the following words:
Kaantadi vishaya Asaktya nashta Atmabhyah kripa vashaat |
Sad-Atma ujjeevanam yo’sau dadati Praana-dah tu atyam ||
Meaning: Bhagavan is called Praana-dah because He instills life in the Jivas whose souls are getting lost because they have been poisoned by the sensuous pleasures.

In essence, it is because of Him that Beings breathe, and it is because of Him that they cease breathing. Here is the beautiful composition of Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha summarising the various interpretations that are possible for the Nama Praana-dah:
Praanan dadati, kimu va dyati,dati kim va praanan vishodhayati, daapayati iti kim va |
Sarvatra sarva vidhina sa hi Vishnur-eko yah Praanado’sti kathitah Srutibhih puranah ||
Meaning: He is the Giver of Praana, the Taker of Praana, the Purifier of Paana, Enlightener of Praana, and is present everywhere and in everything in the form of Praana. The Supreme Deity, Lord Vishnu, is sung thus as Praana-daH in the Shrutis.

Other references to the Shruti that are provided by Sri Vasishtha are:

  • Praana-da apana-da vyana-davarco-da varivo-dah |
    Anyaans-te asmaat-tapantu hetayah pavako asmabhyam shivo bhava || (Yajur. 17.15)
    Meaning: The Life-Giver, keep us safe and provide us the space, and May your weapon (flames) torment other than us; being the purifier, may you be auspicious to us.
  • Yah Praana-dah Praanadavaan babhuva yasmai lokah dhritavantah ksharanti| (Atharva. 4.35.5)
    He is the Life Giver and He protects with a firm resolve and makes everthing function.

Another line of interpretation given by Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha is based on the root ‘pra – purane’ meaning ‘to fill’. In this interpretation, he gives the derivation – Praanah purnah, purnasya dataa Praana-dah – He Who gives fullness to everything.  He is One Who bestows fullness – Praana-dah.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri gives another dimension to the Nama – in His Rama incarnation, He declares that He will even give His life in order to protect those who have surrendered to Him:
Apyaham Jivitam jahyaam tvam vaasite sa-Lakshmanam |
Na tu pratijnaam samSrutya brAhmaNebhyo viSeshataH || Srimad Ramayana 4.10.19
Meaning: Adressing Sita Piratti, Lord Rama says: ‘I won’t mind sacrificing My own life, or even those of You and Lakshmana; but I will not swerve from the word I give, especially to the Brahmanas’.

Sri T. S. Raghavendran explains the Nama as:

  • Praanan indiryani dadati iti Praana-dah – He who gives indriyas to all and makes them function
  • Praanan indiryani dyati khandayati iti Praana-dah – He Who removes the attachment to indriyas for the Sattvic souls
  • Prakrshena anam sukha virruddha duhkham dyati khandayati iti Praana-dah – He Who removes the grief that is opposed to happiness (Nah sukham, tad-viruddhatvat anah Sokhah, prakrshena tama dyati = khandayati iti Praana-dah).
  1. Pranavah – He reveals Himself through the Pranava Mantra – ‘AUM’

Pranavah refers to the primordial sound of ‘A-U-M’ or the Omkara which preceded all Creation. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Pranavo nama Paramatmano Vaachaka Aumkaarah; Tadabhedopachaarena ayam Pranavah – Pranava sound is nothing but the pronouncement of the Bhagavan and a revelation of Himself to the Universe.  Because of this inseparable identity with Omkara Bhagavan is called Pranavah, the one who is Omkara Himself’.

All Vedic mantras start with the Pranava mantra.  In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 7 Verse 8), Bhagavan  says ‘Pranavas Sarva Vedeshu – I am the Pranava as expounded in all Vedas’.  In another verse of the Bhagavad Gita (10.25), Bhagavan says ‘Giraam asmi Ekam aksharam – I am the ‘AUM’ among all sounds’.  So Bhagavan is fully described by the sound of ‘AUM’ and is therefore called as Pranavah.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation for the Nama is ‘Pranavena Idrisha sambandham udbhodhya, maam Namaskuru iti sva-caran aravindayoh tan Pranamayati’ – By means of the sacred ‘Pranava’ mantra, Bhagavan reveals to His devotees the true relationship between Him and them, and makes them understand the need for surrendering unto Him.

Sri Bhattar also gives support from the atharva Siras: ‘Praanan sarvan paramatmani Pranamayati, etasmat Pranavah – The mantra is called Pranava mantra, because it makes all souls to obey, and pay respects to, the Paramatma’.

Pranava refers to the mantra represented by the three letters – A, U, and M – ‘Aum’ or ‘OM’. This syllable, which is considered a mantra that is the essence of all Vedas, is considered as a manifestation of Bhagavan Himself in sound form. Sri Bhattar explains that the letter ‘A’ represents Lord Narayana, the letter ‘U’ represents Goddess Lakshmi and the letter ‘Ma’ refers to the Jivatma.  Hence the Pranava ‘AUM’ represents the union of the Jivatma with Sriman Narayana and Lakshmi Piratti.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri quotes the yoga sutra – tasya vacakaH Pranavah (1.27) – ‘The Pranava mantra is a manifestation in words of Paramatma’.  This mantra reveals Him to us, when we understand the meaning of the mantra. 

Bhagavan summarises His instructions to Arjuna in the last Chapter of the Bhagavad Gita and says in this verse (18.65):
Man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaaji maam Namas-kuru |
Maameva eshyasi satyam te pratijaane priyo’si me || (18.65)
Meaning: Focus your mind on Me; Be My devotee; Be My worshipper; Prostrate before Me. You shall come to Me alone. I promise you, truly, for you are dear to Me”.

It is insightful to read Sri RamanujAcharya’s explanation to this verse, so that we truly understand the nature of this obeisance that Bhagavan instructs us to offer to Him.  He says ‘mad-bhaktah bhava’ – atyartham mama priyah atyarthamatpriyatvena ca niratishaya priyaam Smriti santatim kurushva ityarthah’ – Focus your mind on Me; Be My devotee. Be one to whom I am incomparably dear. Since I am the object of superabundant love, meditate on Me, i.e., practice the succession of memory of unsurpassed love of Me’.

Sri RamanujAcharya stress the word ‘Priyam’ by saying it three times and thereby emphasising the basis of the relationship between Him and us. It is because of His intense love and compassion to us that we should bow to Him, and surrender unto Him, and He assures us that He will redeem us as a result.

mad-yaaji bhava – ‘tatraapi mad-bhakta iti anushajyate, yajanam pujanam atyartha priya mad-Aradhano bhava, Aradhanam hi paripurna Sesha vrittih’.
Meaning: Be My worshipper (yaaji). Here also, the expression ‘Be My devotee’ is applicable. Yajna is worship. Worship Me as One exceedingly dear to you. Worship (Aradhana) is complete subservience to the Lord.

Again the emphasis is on ‘atyartha priyam’. This is the basis of the Aradhana that Bhagavan is advising us to practice. The complete subservience is based on our utmost love to Him, and not based on any other factor such as fear etc.

Maam Namas-kuru – namo Namanam mayi atimaatra-prahvI bhaavam atyarthapriyam kuru ityarthah’
Meaning: Prostrate before Me. The meaning is ‘Bow down humbly before Me with great love.

Once again, Sri Ramanuja emphasises utmost love as the basis – ‘atyartha priyam kuru’ – perform this act with great love.

For those who thus surrender to Him, Bhagavan says: ‘maam eva eshyasi, satyam te pratijaane’ – I make this solemn promise to you. You shall attain Me as a result’. These are not mere empty words, because Bhagavan continues: ‘priyo’si me’ – ‘You are dear to Me’. Thus, Bhagavan is not just advising us to worship Him with love as the basis, but He is bound to us by the same love, even more intensely than we can ever command. Bhagavan has already declared in (BG 7.17) that ‘He in whom there is great love for Me, I hold him also as exceedingly dear to Me. I Myself will enable him to attain Me’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains the Nama as ‘prakarshena nuyate – stuyate sadbhih iti Pranavah – He Who is praised uniquely by the devoted’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives the interpretation for the Nama as – Prakarshena nayati iti Pranavah – Lord Vishnu is called Pranavah because He regulates or puts the world in an orderly form in a splendid way.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan gives the interpretation as ‘nitya nutanatvaat Pranavah (prakeshena nutanatvaat Pranavah (pra + nava= Pranava)’ – He is to be praised by the living with Pranava.

Sri Raghavendran has included some additional interpretation and support: Pranamanti iha yam vedah tasmat Pranavah ucyate – sanatkumara – Vishnu is called Pranavah because all Vedas bow down to Him.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the derivation of the Nama from the root word ‘Nu – stutau’ meaning ‘to praise, to commend’ and explains as ‘Pranauti iti Pranavah, Pranamayati iti va – He Who is praised or worshipped is ‘Pranavah’.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives support from Katha Upanishad (1.2.15 to 1.2.17):
Sarve Veda yat-padam Amananti tapamsi sarvani ca yad vadanti |
Yad-icchanto brahmacaryam caranti tat-te padam sa’ngraheNa bravimi yom iti etat || 1.2.15||
Meaning: The goal which all the Vedas uniformly extol, which all acts of tapas speak of, and wishing for which men lead the life of a Brahmacharin, that goal I tell you briefly—It is this—‘AUM’.

Etaddhyevaksharam Brahma etadd hyevaksharam param | 
Etaddhyevaksharam jnatva yo yadicchati tasya tat || 1.2.16 ||
Meaning: This word (AUM) is, indeed, Brahman, this word is, indeed, the highest; whosoever knows this word obtains, indeed, whatever he wishes for.

Etad-Alambanam Sreshtham etad-Alambanam param |
Etad-Alambanam jnatvaa bloke mahiyate || 1.2.17||
Meaning: This letter is indeed Brahman. This very letter is the Supreme. Meditating upon this letter one gets whatever one wants. This is the best support. This is the highest support. He who knows this is glorified in the world of Brahman.

Sri Vasishtha gives several other references to the Shruti, where the significance of the Pranava mantra is revealed to us:

  • vishve devasa iha maadayanta AUM pratishtha | (yajur. 3.13)
  • AUM krato smara | klive smara | kritam smara | (yajur. 40.15)
  • AUM kham brahma | (yajur. 40.17)
  • Rco akshare parame vyoman asmin deva adhi vishve nisheduh | (Rg. 1.164.9)

The significance of the Pranava mantra is the meditation on the mantra with its meaning in mind, which, at a high level, reveals to us the permanent and eternal relationship between us and the Paramatma, Lord Narayana.

  1.    Panah – He Who trades His role as Master with His devotees, and is subservient to them

The root meaning of Pana is a transaction or activity. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Panatir Vyavahararthah tam Kurvan Panah – Pana means a transaction and therefore Panah is one who transacts actively’. He quotes the ine from Taittriya Aranyaka Upanishad (1.2.7) ‘Sarvaani Rupaani Vichintya Dheero Namani Kritvabhivadan Yadaaste – He, the brilliant one, contemplates various forms and creates them giving them different names’. Each creation is a transaction for Bhagavan and hence He is called Panah, the one who repeatedly transacts.

Sri Adi Sankara also gives another interpretation taking the meaning of trader for Panah. His second interpretation is ‘Punyaani sarvani Karmani Panam Sangrihya Adhikaaribhyah tatphalam prayacchati iti vaa lakshanayaa Panah – He takes into account the actions carried out by various people and gives fruits according to the merits of their deeds and hence He is called Panah, the trader. Basically this is a trading activity and Bhagavan who performs this is the great trader or Panah, as the name indicates.

Sri Parasara Bhattar draws from the SeshaseshI bhavam, or the Lord-servant relationship that exists between Him and us. While this is the natural relationship between Bhagavan and us, sometimes He chooses to reverse this relationship, and behaves as if He is the servant of the devotee. This is the ‘transaction’, namely the reversal of the role, that Sri Bhattar enjoys through this Nama – ‘evam tesham svamya-daasya vyatiharena vyavaharati iti Panah – He behaves as though there is a transaction whereby there has been an interchange of the role of the Master-servant relationship between Him and us. He acts as if they are the masters and He is their servant.  There are several instances where the Bhagavan becomes subservient to His devotees – e.g. for Thirumazhisai Azhwar, for Namdev, for Sakkubhai, for Yashoda etc.

Sri RamanujAcharya explain this as ‘ayam maya vina Atma dhaarana asambhaavanaya maam eva anuttamam praapyam Asthitah, atah tena vina mama api Atmadhaaranam na sambhavati, tato mama api Atma hi sah’ – This Jnani, who is solely devoted to Him, considers Him to be the highest, and finds it impossible to support himself without Me; so also, I find it impossible to be without him. Thus, verily, He is My self”.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the root for the Nama as ‘Pana – vyavahare’ meaning ‘to bargain, to bet or stake at play’, or ‘pana – stutau’ meaning ‘to praise’.  Vyavaharati, vyavahaarayati va vishvam, sah Panah – He Who transacts the activites of the world, or He because of whom the people of the world transact their activites, is Panah.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives examples from the Shruti where this ‘transaction’ aspect is captured:
Yo agnishoma havisha saparyaat daivadrica manasa yo ghritena |
Tasya vratam rakshatam paatamamhaso vishe janaaya mahi Sarmayacchatam || (Rg. 1.93.8)
Meaning: Whosoever honours Agni and Soma with devout heart, through oil and poured oblation, for him, they (Agni, Soma etc.) in turn protect his sacrifice, preserve him from distress, and grant to the sacrificer great felicity.

Agnih purvebhih Rishbhih Idyo nutanairuta |
Sa devaam eha vakshati || (Rg. 1.1.2)
Meaning: Worthy is Agni to be praised by the living as by ancient seers; He shall bring the Gods.

Agne naya supatha raaye | (Rg. 1.189.1)
Meaning: Agni, God who knows every sacred duty, by goodly paths lead us to riches.

Sri Vasishtha has interpreted the Nama in the spirit of Agni carrying the offerings that are made to the Devas, and the Devas in return, bestow riches on the people.

In the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna in Chapter 3 verse 11 and 12 says:
Devan bhavayatanena te deva bhavayantu vah |
Parasparam bhAvayantaH SreyaH param avApsyatha || 3.11||
Meaning: The Devas, being pleased by sacrifices, will also please you; thus nourishing one another, there will reign general prosperity for all.

Ishtaan bhogaan hi vo deva daasyante yajna bhavitaah |
Tair-dattaan apradaayaibhyo yo bhungte stena eva sah ||B.G.3.12||
Meaning: The Devas, pleased by the sacrifice, will bestow on you the enjoyments you desire. He who enjoys the bounty of the Devas without giving them anything in return, is but a thief.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri comments that as a merchant gives merchandise that is commensurate with the amount that is paid to him, Bhagavan measures out the fruits commensurate with the karma; thus, the price for happiness is following the path of Dharma.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains this Guna of Bhagavan in terms of the functioning of everything in the Universe: ‘Panah – The Supreme Manager of the Universe. By giving the exact reward for all actions, Lord both orders and justly manages all activities of each individual and directly supervises the interactions between individuals and things constituting this scientifically precise Universe’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj uses the meaning ‘to praise’, and explains the Nama as ‘Panyate stuyate sattva Gunavadbhih iti Panah – He Who is worshipped by those who are endowed with a predominance of the sattva Guna’. This is also the interpretation provided by Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha – Panyate janaih stuyate iti Panah.

Sri Raghunatha Thirtha gives yet another dimension to His ‘transactions’ – Panayati devaan vyahaareshu pravartayati iti Panah – He is called Panah because He assigns the respective duties to be performed by the different the Gods, and controls them in these functions.

In Summary

Aadhaaranilayo Dhata Pushpahaasah Prajaagarah                 |
Urdhvagah Satpathacharah Praanadah Pranavah Panah ||102||

He supports the five basic elements or the Pancha Bhutas such as the Earth, Air, Water, Fire and Ether that support all others, hence He is called Aadhaaranilayah. He is well established and and has no other support other than Himself, hence He is called Adhaata, one who is self-reliant’. Bhagavan blooms Himself into a beautiful Universe, hence He is called Pushpahaasah, one who blooms like a flower. He is innately alert and awake to His devotees’ needs, hence He is called Prajaagarah.

Bhagavan is superior to every one in every way and is present everywhere; He knows everything and is ever-lasting; He stands above all in all respects, thus He is called Urdhvagah. He conducts Himself in a righteous manner, leading by example through His Avataars, and hence He is called Satpathaachaarah. He is the Life-Giver and hence He is called Prana-dah. He represents the Pranava Mantra – AUM and hence He is Pranavah. He gives fruits according to the merits of the deeds and hence He is called Panah.  He is also called Panah, as He trades His role as Master with His devotees and becomes subservient to them.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.

SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 101) – PART 110

In this part, we will explore the meaning of the 101st Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


Anaadir BhurBhuvo Lakshmih Suveero Ruchiraangadah |
Janano Janajanmaadih Bheemo Bheemaparaakramah   ||101||

Purport
He has no origin as He is Himself the cause of everything. He supports the Earth that bears the weight of every other being and He also symbolises its splendour and glory. He possesses great valour, and He has very beautiful and exquisite shoulder ornaments. He creates all beings, and is the root cause and the fundamental source of birth of all beings. He is the cause of fear and strikes terror in the hearts of the Asuras and other evil forces.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1.    Anaadih
  2.    BhurBhuvah
  3.    Lakshmih
  4.    Suveerah
  5.    Ruchiraangadah
  6.    Jananah
  7.    Janajanmaadih
  8.    Bheemah
  9.    Bheemaparaakramah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1.    Anaadih – He Who has no beginning

The word ‘Adi’ means the ‘beginning’ and ‘Anaadi’ is ‘One which has no beginning or origin’. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Aadih Kaaranam asya na Vidyate iti Anaadih, Sarvakaaranatvaat – He has no origin or root cause as He is Himself the cause of everything else, hence He is called Anaadih, the one without an origin’.

Bhagavan is the cause of all causes and there is no underlying root cause for him. So He is rightly called Anaadih, the One Who has no beginning.

Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama as – taih anyaparaih na svamitvena Adiyate iti Anaadih – He Who is not realised by the likes of Brahma as the Supreme entity. Bhagavan resorted to His leelas to make Brahma realise his limitations and subdue his pride. Sri Bhattar gives examples of Bhagavan’s leelas such as the Vedas being stolen from Brahma by Madhu and Kaitabha, making Brahma realise that He has finite number of years by making him meet Sage Romasar etc.

Sri Srimushnam Andavan explains the Nama as “na dIyate iti Anaadih” – He Who does not give Himself to the non-devotees.

Bhagavan is bound by the affection of His devotees, so the likes of Gajendra attain Him easily.  Bhagavan is not realised as the Supreme Deity by the Devas as they rush to Him only when they are in trouble and need His help.  At other times, they long after other benefits, such as their positions, rather than devoting their efforts in attaining Him. Thus, Bhagavan is called Anaadih also because He is not realised as the Supreme Deity by many i.e He Who is not easily attained.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri explains that Bhagavan is Anaadih as He cannot be realised by those who are driven by pride and haughtiness.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha derives the Nama from the root ‘da – daane’ meaning ‘to give’, and gives the interpretation ‘na Adiyate iti Anaadih’ – He Who is not easily attained.  He Who is not ‘given’ to us though our mind, indiryas etc. na AdIyate = grihyate samanaskaih jnanendriyaih karmendriyaishca iti Anaadih. The meaning is that He is not accessible to us through the means of intellect or actions i.e. the mind and the indiryas.

An alternative interpretation by Sri Vasishtha is – na AdIyate sveekriyate svodbhavaya kincit aparam nimitta kaaranam anena so Anaadih – He Who does not need any other cause for His being, is Anaadih – in other words, One Who existed before anything else existed.

  1.    Bhur-Bhuvah – He Who supports that which supports all

The word ‘Bhuh’ means ‘support or load bearer’ and ‘Bhuvah’ means ‘of the earth’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Bhuh Aadhaarah Bhuvah Sarvabhuta ashrayatvena Prasiddhaayaa Bhumyaah Bhuvah api Bhuh iti BhurBhuvah – He supports the Earth that bears the weight of every other being, hence He is called BhurBhuvah or the supporter of the Earth’.

He provides the strength to the Earth to be the bearer of all objects on its surface, so He is rightly called as BhurBhuvah or the bearer of the Earth.  In Shloka 34, the Lord is called as Maheedharah which has a similar meaning –‘ One who supports the Earth’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as He supports and liberates those who follow the righteous path.  He gives examples of the lives of Akrura, Vidura and Udhavar as wise men who followed Dharma. 

Thiruvalluvar says ‘வையத்துள் வாழ்வாங்கு வாழ்பவன் வானுறையும் தெய்வத்துள் வைக்கப் படும்’ (Thirukkural 50) meaning ‘He who lives on Earth as he should live (righteously), will be placed among the Gods who dwell in heaven’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as: ‘bhavati iti Bhuh – svadAsya jnanena Atmalabhavan; tasya Bhuvah, svayameva Bhuh = padam iti Bhur-Bhuvah” – A person who has the correct knowledge that he is the servant of the Lord and that the Lord is the Master, is one who is Bhu – one who really lives. For that person, Bhagavan is an Abode or the Support – (Bhu), and so He is referred to as Bhur-Bhuvah.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha derives the Nama from the root ‘Bhu – sattaayaam’ meaning ‘to be, to live’. Sri Vasishtha’s explanation is ‘Prathamo Bhu Sabda Adhaara vaacakah prathamanto, dvitiyashca shashthyantah prithivi vaacakah’. Bhagavan Bhuvah Bhuh – The Support of all supports. The different interpretations can be viewed on the basis of this meaning.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan explains that Bhagavan is Bhumi (support) for those who have the dasya jnana, namely the knowledge and realization that they are always His dasas, as their Bhumi. In other words, He is the Support for those that are followers of Bhakti Yoga, Prapatti Yoga, etc.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Bhavanti asyam iti Bhuh – prithvi; tasya Bhuh – Adhaarah’ – He is the Support of the Earth, and so He is BhurBhuvah. He is also the Creator as well as the Sustainer of everything – Bhuvayor bhavayita = utpadako muladhaarah sa Bhur-Bhuvaucyate. Sri Vasishtha gives the alternate interpretation – svayam svasmin bhavati iti Bhur-Bhuvah – He Who exists in Himself is Bhur-Bhuvah. In other words, there is nothing else which is the cause for His existence, or for His Creation.

Sri Krishna datta Bharadvaj gives the interpretation – Bhuvah – prapancasya, Bhuh – udgamah (Creation, Sustenance etc.), Bhuvo Bhuh. He gives the alternate interpretation – Bhuva iti jnanam, tasya Bhuh = udbhava iti Bhuvo Bhuh – He Who is the source or Origin of knowledge. In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 15 Verse 15), Bhagavan says:
Sarvasya caham hridi sannivishto mattah smritir-jnanam apohanam ca |
Vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo vedanta-krd veda-vid eva caham ||
Meaning: I am seated in everyone’s heart and from Me come remembrance, knowledge, and forgetfulness. I am to be known by all the Vedas; indeed I am the compiler of Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas. 

  1.    Lakshmih – The Wealth

The word ‘Lashmi’ has several meanings such as wealth, beauty and splendour. In this Nama, Sri Adi Sankara takes the meaning of Lakshmi as ‘splendour’.  He connects it with the previous Nama and says that Bhagavan is not only the carrier of the Earth but also the splendour of the Earth. He says ‘Na kevalam Asau Bhuh Bhuvah Lakshmih Shobha cha iti Bhuvo Lakshmih – He is not only the support for the Earth but He also symbolises its splendour and glory’.

Sri Adi Sankara gives an alternative explanation as ‘Athavaa Bhuh Bhurlokah Bhuvah Bhuvar lokah Bhumyantarikshayoh Shobha iti va BhurBhuvoLakshmih – Bhuh means the earth, Bhuvah means the firmament (Sky); He is the one who illuminates the Earth and the Sky, so He is called BhurBhuvo Lakshmih’.

Yet another interpretation is ‘Lakshmih AtmaVidya –Lakshmih means the knowledge about the Self, so Bhagavan symbolises the knowledge about the Self.  Sri Sankara quotes from the Vishnu Puraanam 1.9.118 in support of this, which says ‘AtmaVidya cha Devi tvam – Oh Devi, you are verily the knowledge about the Self’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar comments that Bhagavan has this Nama to signify that He alone is all the Wealth to His devotees – tesham Lakshmih – sarva sampat ca. He gives examples from the Ramayana and the MahaBharata:
Parityakta maya Lanka mitraani ca dhanaani cha ||
Bhavad-gatam ca me raajyam jeevitam ca sukhani ca (Yuddha Kanda 19.5 & 19.6)
Meaning: Vibhishana says to Lord Rama: ‘Abandoning Lanka, friends and possessions, I place my Kingdom, life and happiness at your disposal’.

Krishna Ashrayaah Krishna balah Krishna naathaashca Pandavah |
Krishnah parayanam tesham jyotishami va candrama || (droNa. 183.24)
Meaning: For the Pandavas, Sri Krishna is the sole support. Krishna is their strength, and Krishna is their protector. Sri Krishna is their sole Lord, even as the Moon is to the stars.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s Pasuram in support:
மேலாத் தேவர்களும் நிலத்தேவரும் மேவித்தொழும்,
மாலார் வந்தினநாள் அடியேன்மனத்தே மன்னினார்,
சேலேய் கண்ணியரும் பெருஞ்செல்வமும் நன்மக்களும்,
மேலாத் தாய்தந்தையும் அவரேயினி யாவாரே.
Meaning:  The Lord worshipped by celestials and monarchs has come this day and occupied my lowly heart.  Henceforth he is my Mother, my father, my Children, my wealth, my fish-eyed women and all else. He is ALL to me.

Sri Krishnan explains the Nama as ‘One Who has all the wealth for giving away to the devotees, One Who is endowed with limitless wealth; One Who has Lakshmi Herself as His Consort’. In addition, He is Himself the wealth for the devotees who seek Him and nothing else. Sri Krishnan gives references from Srimad Ramayanam:
Na deva lokakramanam na amaratvam aham vrine |
Aishvaryam va vilokanam Ramaye na tvaya vina || (Lakshmana)
Meaning: There is no Lordship, no eternal life, no great victory in this world, no wealth of any kind that I wish in this world; all I wish for is for You, My Lord Rama.

Sneho me paramo Rajan tvayi nityam pratishthitah |
Bhaktishca niyata veera bhavo nanyatra gacchati || (Hanuman)
Meaning: My mind does not seek anything except eternal and constant devotion to You; all I wish for eternal service-minded dedication to You.

Sri Thiruppaan Azhwar, in his Amalanadipiraan Pasuram (10) says:
கொண்டல் வண்ணனைக் கோவல னாய்வெண்ணெய்
உண்ட வாயன்என் னுள்ளம் கவர்ந்தானை
அண்டர் கோனணி யரங்கன்என் னமுதினைக்
கண்ட கண்கள்மற் றொன்றினைக் காணாவே.
Meaning: The dark-hued Lord is, the Lord who came as a cowherd-lad and stole buffer, He is the Lord of the Devas, and the Lord of Arangan too. He has stolen my heart. After seeing my Lord of ambrosial delight, my eyes seek to see nothing else.

Sri Thondaradipodi Azhwar in His famous Pasuram says:
பச்சைமா மலைபோல்மேனி பவளவாய் கமலச் செங்கண்
அச்சுதா அமர ரேறே ஆயர்தம் கொழுந்தே என்னும்
இச்சுவை தவிர யான்போய் இந்திர லோக மாளும்
அச்சுவை பெறினும் வேண்டேன் அரங்கமா நகரு ளானே.
Meaning: O’ The Lord with the hue of a huge green mountain, with coral lips and Lotus-red eyes, Achyuta! The Lord of the Devas, O Cowherd-Lord, denying the joy of praising you thus, if I were given to rule even Indra’s kingdom, – even if you gave it, I shall not want it. What greater pleasure can I ever get, when I have this nectar, of enjoying You right here and now, My Lord Ranganatha.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri comments that the Nama is of feminine gender, and denotes that Bhagavan is One Who is always associated with Goddess Lakshmi, and in fact She never leaves Him ever, and is always residing in His vaksha sthalam. When Bhagavan takes incarnations, She always accompanies Him; for instance, when He took incarnation as Rama, she took incarnation as Sita, and when He took incarnation as Krishna, She came as Rukmini. Thus, She is inseparable from Him, and it is this duality together that we should worship.

Sri NammAzhwar in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (6.10.10) expounds this inseparability of Lakshmi and Lord beautifully:
அகல கில்லேன் இறையும் என் றலர்மேல் மங் கை யுறைமார்பா,
நிகரில் புகழாய். உலகமூன் றுடையாய். என்னை ஆள்வானே,
நிகரில் அமரர் முனிக்கணங்கள் விரும்பும் திருவேங் கடத்தானே,
புகலொன் றில்லா அடியேனுன் அடிக்கீ ழமர்ந்து புகுந்தேனே.
Meaning: O Lord, you bear the Lotus-dame (Alarmel Mangai- MahaLakshmi) on your chest, declaring that She is forever Inseparable from You.  O’ My Master of matchless fame, bearing the three worlds, O Lord of Venkatam desired by the celestials and the great sages!  Falling at your feet, this refugeless self has found his refuge.

The Nama thus signifies that Bhagavan is ever associated with the qualities of beauty, fame, splendour, wealth, and in fact the fullness of all auspicious qualities, that are signified by Goddess Lakshmi.

The Story of Vamana Avataar – Inseparable with Lakshmi

This is not a full story on Vamana Avataar but only a part of it to emphasise the inseparability of the Lord and Goddess Lakshmi.

MahaBali was the great grandson of Hiranyakshipu and the grandson of Prahlada. He was taught the Vedhas by his grandfather Prahlada and after that by his teacher Shukracharya. The people were very happy and prosperous under his rule. King MahaBali was a generous man who engaged in severe austerities and penance and won the praise of the world.  Mahabali performed severe penance to Lord Brahma and obtained Brahma’s blessing to rule over the three worlds. However, MahaBali aided by his Guru was always righteous and was devoted to Lord Vishnu.

Shukracharya once called him, ‘Bali! You have now conquered the three worlds. However if you wish to always be the Lord of the three worlds, you have to perform 100 Ashwamedha Yagnas. It is befitting that a king like you should perform the Ashwamedha Yagna, then you will always be the King of the three worlds.’ So, the preparations went ahead for the 100 yagnas.

Meanwhile, Indra was lying dejected and sought his Mother Aditi’s counsel.  Aditi prayed to Lord Vishnu and performed penance to seek His grace. After some time Lord Vishnu appeared before her and granted her wish to restore Indra his kingdom.  Soon Aditi and Kashyap were the parents of a beautiful boy. They decided to perform the Upanayanam (the sacred thread ceremony) for the Lord.  Vamana’s sacred thread ceremony was performed amidst much pomp and all the Devas showered their gifts.

Bhuma Devi gifted an Angavastram for the Lord saying that He will realise the significance of this gift later. 

The young Vamana dressed as a Brahmin proceeds to Mahabali’s Yagna to seek alms as a Brahmachari (Bachelor).  He does a final check of His attire and accessories to make sure that He looked the part and there was nothing amiss that could give away His true Self when He met Mahabali.

He began to check His possessions – kamandalam, umbrella, sacred thread, thiruman etc. – He suddenly realised that Goddess Lakshmi was on His vaksha sthalam (chest) and that was a give away which will disqualify Him from seeking the charity as it would disclose that He was not a Brahmachari.  He pleads with Goddess Lakshmi to leave Him and wait for Him in Sri Vaikuntham while He accomplished His mission, as it was necessary that He was seen to be a Brahmachari.  The Goddess refuses to leave Him pointing out that He had made a promise and had said “Agalagillen”, and that He will always be with Her (Inseparable forever). 

The Lord thinks for a moment and then the gift from BhumaDevi came to His mind. He uses the Angavastram to hide her from the sights of Mahabali and others.

This incident emphasises the Inseparability of the Lord and Goddess Lakshmi.

Mahabali felt a surge of love towards the boy. He got up from the throne and offered it to the boy and bowed before him. He said, ‘I am honoured that you have come to my hundredth Ashwamedha Yagna. I now feel it will be a success’. Mahabali said looking at the boy lovingly.

Vamana asked King MahaBali three paces of land. Mahabali consented, against the warning of his Guru, Shukracharya.  Vamana then revealed his identity and enlarged Himself to gigantic proportions to stride over the three worlds taking His Trivikrama Avataar. He covered heaven to earth with the first step and earth to the netherworld with the second. King Mahabali, unable to fulfill his promise, offered his head for the third step. Vamana then placed his foot and gave the King immortality for his humility.

For the humility shown by MahaBali in keeping his promise and also giving due recognition for his ancestor Prahlada, the Lord conceded sovereignty of Patala, the netherworld to MahaBali.

Just before King Mahabali was sent to Patala Loka, he was given the permission by Vamana to visit his people once a year.  The Onam festival is celebrated to welcome MahaBali back to his lost Kingdom. During this festival, beautiful floral decorations are made in every house and boat races are held throughout Kerala. A twenty-one-course feast is an important highlight of the Onam festival known as the ‘Onam Sadhya’.

Mahabali symbolises Ahankar or Ego, the three feet symbolises the three planes of existence (Jagrat, Swapna and Sushupthi i.e. Awake, Dream and Deep Sleep State) or (Sthula, Sukshma and Karana Sharira i.e. Gross, Subtle and Causal body) and the final step is on his head which elevates him from all the three states to grant him Jeevan-Mukti.

Om Namo Narayanaaya _/\_

Swami ChinmayAnanda captures the idea that Bhagavan is the Sole source of all that is good and beautiful in this Universe through the following words: ‘If Self were not, then all would have been inert, unborn, dead. As the One Life everywhere, as Pure Existence, all the glories of this dynamic Universe are in Him and from Him alone’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj derives his interpretation starting from the root word ‘Laksha – darshana’nkanayoh’ meaning ‘to notice, to define, to regard’; or alternatively, the root ‘Laksh – Alocane’ meaning ‘to perceive, to observe’. His interpretations are:

  • Lakshayati = darshayati niratishaya vatsalyam iti Lakshmih – He Who shows Vatsalyam (affection) to His devotee that is beyond description
  • Lakshayati ankam Aropayati Bhakta putran iti Lakshmih, JaganMata – JaganMata, MahaLakshmi, Who ensures that Her children, who are devoted to the Divyadampati, are safe on His lap. Since Bhagavan and Lakshmi Piratti are inseparable in all respects, the Nama Lakshmih, which normally refers to the Mother, is also a reference to Him simultaneously.

Using the meaning Laksh–Alocane, the alternate interpretation is ‘Lakshayati Alocayati sva-jananam vipatsarita uddharasya upayan iti Lakshmih – He shows the devotees the means to overcome the obstacles of Samsara, which is full of impediments.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha uses the same root ‘Laksh – Darshanankayoh’ and gives the interpretationas Lakshayati punyakrito, lakshayate punyakritbhih iti va Lakshmih – Bhagavan is called Lakshmih since He regards those who are endowed with good virtues as His treasure, or because He is regarded as the Supreme Lord by the virtuous’.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as – Lakshayati darshayati iti Lakshmih – He Who makes those who are endowed with LakshmI – wealth, beauty, etc., shine distinguishably. In fact, He, in the form of Lakshmi Who is present everywhere and pervades everything, and makes all things known.

Sri Vasishtha gives the example of the Sun, which is visible from a vast distance away, because He has endowed the Sun with the Shobha or splendour.

  1.    Suveerah – He Who possesses Great Valour

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Shobhana Vividha Eeraa Gatayo yasya sah Suveerah – He has various auspicious movements hence He is called Suveerah, the one who performs auspicious movements or travels’. In His various incarnations He undertakes various journeys for the protection of good people thus earning Him the Nama Suveerah’.

Sri Adi Sankara gives another interpretation for the Nama as ‘Shobhanam vividham Eerte iti vaa Suveerah – He leaves auspicious vibrations in the minds of His devotees and hence He is called Suveerah, the One who creates auspicious vibes’.

Some interpretations have been given based on the meaning of Valour for ‘Veera’.  Sri Parasara Bhattar uses the meaning ‘valorous’ for the term ‘Veera’, and explains the Nama as ‘One Who is valorous in defending His devotees from their downfall, and retrieving those who have had a downfall – tesham vinipata pratikarah.

Srimad SrimushNam Andavan explains the Nama as “Sobhanah veerah yah sah Suveerah’ – He Who is a highly desirable Veera is Suveerah.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (3.2.3), where the Azhwar praises the valour of Lord Krishna:
கொல்லா மாக்கோல் கொலைசெய்து பாரதப்போர்,
எல்லாச் சேனையும் இருநிலத் தவித்தவெந்தாய்,
பொல்லா ஆக்கையின் புணர்வினை அறுக்கலறா,
சொல்லாய்யா னுன்னைச் சார்வதோர் சூழ்ச்சியே.
Meaning: O’ Lord who steered the chariot in the battlefield.  Striking death to the wicked in the Bharata War!  Pray tell me how I may join your feet, cutting asunder my bodily connections.

Bhagavan uses the stick that He used for directing the horses pulling the chariot, and though this stick itself could not kill, He still used it so skillfully that Arjuna was able to finish the task that He wanted to get fulfilled, and reduced the Bhu-bhaaram or the load on the earth by destroying the fighters on both sides.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as Sobhana, sarala, vividha ca Irah gatih yasya sa Suveerah – He Who has beautiful, elegant, gait that is displayed in His various Avataars. Even though Sri Vasishtha does not refer to the different gatis of Bhagavan such as the Gaja gati, Simha gati, Vyaghra gati, Sarpa gati etc., one is immediately reminded of these beautiful gaits that one can witness and enjoy during the temple processions of Emperuman from temple chambers to the outside streets and back. Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha also gives the example of Bhagavan manifesting Himself in various movements such as Dakshinayana, Uttarayana, etc.

Sri Velukkudi Krishnan distinguishes between three types of Veeras: Veera, Sura, Parakrama. Veera is one who does not get disturbed by the might of the opposition; Sura is one who gets inside the army of the opposition and destroys the opposition without a trace; Parakrama is the quality wherein there is no harm or injury to the fighter in the process of fighting. Sri Krishnan comments that through this Nama, Bhagavan’s Veera, Shaurya and Parakrama are all described.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains the Nama as – Shobano veerahparakrami iti Suveerah.

Sri Ananta Krishna Shastry elaborates that the different movements referred to here are His occupying the hearts of the Yogis, His presence as the orb of the Sun, in the Milky Ocean, etc.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama as: ‘One Who moves through various ways which are all divinely glorious; Or, One Who exhibits in all His incarnations the inimitable splendour of valour in His actions and achievements’.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri explains that Bhagavan has this Nama signifying that He is accessible to us through different means (e.g., Bhakti, Prapatti).

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan interprets the Nama as He, in His Krishna incarnation, was associated with many Veeras alongside Him, hence He is Suveerah – tatah samagateshu sakhishu Suveerah Sobhanah Sridamasubhadradayah svatulya veera yasya sa Suveerah.

  1.    Ruchiraangadah – He Who bestows His lovely form for His devotees to enjoy

The word ‘Ruchira’ means ‘attractive or tasteful’ and ‘Angadah’ means a shoulder ornament. Combining these, Sri Adi Sankara interprets the Nama as ‘Ruchire Kalyaane Angade Asya iti Ruchiraangadah – He has very beautiful and exquisite shoulder ornaments, hence He is called Ruchiraangadah’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘ruciram = ati-manoharam, anubhava bhogyam angam dadati iti Ruchiraangadah – He Who bestows His lovely form to His devotees which is fit to be enjoyed’. Sri Bhattar quotes from the jitante stotram in support:
na te rupam na cakaro nayudhani na caspadam |
tathapi purushAkaro bhaktanam prakashase ||
Meaning: Neither Your divya Atma svarupam, nor Your divya mangaLa vigraham, nor for that matter Your divya ayudhams, or Your own Sri Vaikuntham, are for Your benefit (they are all for Your devotees’ benefit, and thus You are not independent, but You are the possession of Your devotees). Even so, You shine as the Supreme Being.

Bhagavan has a Divya mangala vigraham (Thirumeni) that is absolutely delectable to His devotees. Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers us to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi, where the Azhwar describes Bhagavan’s Thirumeni in more than one Pasuram:
செவ்வாயுந்தி வெண்பல் சுடர்க்குழை, தன்னோடு
எவ்வாய்ச் சுடரும் தம்மில்முன் வளாய்க்கொள்ள,
செவ்வாய் முறுவலோ டெனதுள்ளத் திருந்த,
அவ்வா யன்றியான் அறியேன்மற் றருளே. ||8.7.7||
Meaning: He stands before me with lotus navel, coral lips and pearl-white teeth, wearing radiant ear- rings, He is of exceeding effulgence, Oh, with a smile I could embrace! I am truly enhanted. He stays in my heart, I do not know a greater grace.

கண்கள் சிவந்து பெரியவாய் வாயும் சிவந்து கனிந்து,உள்ளே
வெண்பல் இலகு சுடரிலகு விலகு மகர குண்டலத்தன்,
கொண்டல் வண்ணன் சுடர்முடியன் நான்கு தோளன் குனி சார்ங்கன்,
ஒண்சங் கதைவா ளாழியான் ஒருவன் அடியே னுள்ளானே. ||8.8.1||
Meaning: He stands within me with large red eyes and sweet coral lips, pearly white teeth and radiant dangling earnings shaped like Makara-fish.  Dark as the rain-cloud, he wears a radiant crown, has four arms, and holds a beautiful bow, conch, discus, sword and mace.

In these four lines, Azhwar beautifully captures the beauty of His Form, but also the fact that this lovely form is there only for devotees like the Azhwars to enjoy.

Sri Krishnan gives the instance of Gajendra moksham, and notes that for a devotee such as Gajendra, Bhagavan gave His divine Thirumeni (by embracing him). He also refers us to Thiruvai Mozhi 1.9, all the ten Pasurams of which describe how Bhagavan gives the enjoyment of Himself to Sri NammAzhwar in gradual steps, instead of giving this experience all at once, just so that the Azhwar is not overwhelmed by this divine experience.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan explains the Nama as ‘ruciram angam tebhyo dadati iti tad vidheyastaan Alingatavaan iti Arthah – He gives His divine embrace to those devotees who are deserving.

Sri Rama blessed Hanuman with His divine embrace, declaring that this was the best gift that He could ever give to anyone.  Similary, Lord Rama embraced Guhan and said ‘Guhanodum ivar aanom’ – With Guhan we have become five (as He takes him as brother).

Sri Ananta Krishna Shastry gives a different interpretation, based on the same meaning for the words constituting the Nama – He Who bestows beautiful or auspicious bodies on His devotees.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri gives the example of Bhagavan giving a beautiful form to a hunch-backed woman in Kamsa’s palace by removing the disfigurement that she had in her form.

Sri Krishna datta Bharadvaj gives his explanation as ‘Ruciranidarshaneeyatamani bahu-Bhushanani catvari angadani yasya iti Ruchiraanngadah – He Who is adorned with exquisite ornaments on His shoulders is a delight to look at and enjoy.

Sri Satyadevo Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Sundara gati yuktam Shareeram, sundaram gamanam va yo dadati sa Ruchirangadah – One Who has given a body equipped with the means for all creatures to move around’.

  1.    Jananah – The Creator

The root word is ‘Jan’ meaning ‘to be born’. Sri Adi Sankara interprets the meaning as ‘Jantoon Janayan Jananah – He creates all beings, hence He is called Jananah’.

Starting from this Nama onwards till Nama 992, Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets them in the context of the purpose for which Bhagavan undertakes all His actions which is for the benefit of Jivas -‘aatha sarva bhagavad vyaparanam prayojanam. We will see that everything that Bhagavan undertakes is for the sole benefit of the Jivas, without exception.

First, we start with His act of Creation. Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is – tadanubhava kshama karana yuktan anyanapi janayati iti Jananah – He creates us and other beings also, gifted with the indiryas etc., for enjoying Him. Sri Krishnan quotes the following in support:
Vicitra deha sampattih Aishvaraya niveditum |
Purvameva krita Brahman hasta padadi samyuta ||
Meaning: Brahman creates us fully endowed with the means of Karma such as hands, legs, etc., just so we can dedicate these in the service of the Lord.

Out of His compassion, Bhagavan gives the Jivas a body, with all the Indriyas, and a form that is based on their karmas, so that they can better themselves in that birth and move towards Him. He also gives us the free will to use our capabilities to either move towards Him, or misuse all our faculties and divert them to other causes. If we misuse the opportunity, of course, we are reborn to have another chance again, according to our accumulated karmas.

Sri NammAzhwar repeatedly reminds us that it is Bhagavan who is the true Creator, who creates the mahat, the Pancha Maha Bhutas, the Brahmanda etc., and then creates Brahma inside this Brahmanda, and gives him the knowledge to continue the process of creation inside the Brahmanda, and gives Him the power to do this by being his antaryami. So it is Bhagavan who is the true Creator.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Janayati iti Jananah, sarvasya jagato Jananah, svayam ajopi – One Who creates everything else, but Who Himself is not born’.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama as, ‘Lord Sri Narayana is the great Father of all living beings, as all the Universe comes from Him alone. He alone was before all creation; from Him alone everything has arisen; in Him everything exists, is nurtured and nourished by His Glory. Thus, as the very progenitor of the Universe, Sriman Narayana, the Self, is the only Jagad-Ishvara (Lord of the Universe)’.

Swami ChinmayAnanda quotes from the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 11 Verse 43):
pitasi lokasya caracarasya tvam asya pujyas ca gurur gariyan |
na tvat-samo ‘sty abhyadhikah kuto ‘nyo loka-traye ‘py apratima-prabhava ||
Meaning: You are the Father of this world, of all that moves and that does not move. You are its teacher and the One most worthy of reverence. There is none equal to You. How could there be another greater than You within the three worlds. You are immeasurable.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha’s explanation is: janam nayati iti Jananah – He Who leads all beings is Jana-nah.

Sri Krishna datta Bharadvaj explains the Nama as – janayati mudam svajananam hridayeshu iti Jananah – He Who generates delight in the hearts of His devotees is Jananah.

  1.    Jana-janmaadih – He Who is the root cause of all beings

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Janasya janimato Janma Udbhavah Tasyaadirmoola Karanam iti Janajanmaadih – He is the root cause of birth of all beings, hence He is called Janajanmaadih, the fundamental source of everybody’s birth’. The immediate cause of birth may be the egg or seed or the mother’s womb but Bhagavan is the prime force which actually makes all this happen and therefore He is called Janajanmaadih, the prime cause of all births.

The Nama can be understood by looking at its component words: jana-janma-AdiH. Most interpreters explain the Nama as ‘He Who is the Cause of all living beings’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives this interpretation as well, but in addition to that says that Bhagavan is also the ‘prayojanam’, or the ultimate goal for the living beings that are blessed at birth with a body – tesham jananam janmana Adih = nimittam (root cause), prayojanam (benefit or fruit of the birth) iti Jana-janmaadih. Sri Bhattar’s emphasis is on ‘prayojanam’, or ‘purpose’ of this birth. He gives several references that declare the prime purpose of this birth is to attain Him through expending our karmas.

Adya me saphalam janma (Vishnu dharma 5.17.3) – This day my birth has become fruitful, and my night has given place to an auspicious dawn, because I am going to see Lord Krishna – words of Akrura on the prospect of having the Darshan of Lord Krishna.

Janmanya viphala saika ya GovindaAshraya kriya – The only act that is not fruitless in this life is that which has something to do with Govinda.

Sujanma dehamatyantam tadevashesha jantushu |
Yadeva pulakotbhasi Vishnu Namani keertite ||
Meaning: Amongst all beings, the body of that person is of good birth which shines with hair standing on their ends out of joy when the Vishnu Nama is pronounced.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Jananam janmana Adih’ – One Who is the cause of all living things. He looks at the Nama as: jayante iti janah; janma jananam; AdiH dadateh’ – He Who gives, He Who is the root cause or Mula karanam.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj’s interpretation is along the same lines as well – jananam praninam janmanah Adih iti Jana-janmadih.

  1.    Bhimah – He Who invokes fear in those who do not follow Dharma

The root word is ‘Bhi’ meaning ‘fear’. Based on this. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Bhayahetutvaat Bhimah – He is the cause of fear, hence He is called Bheemah’. He quotes from the Katha Upanishad (2.3.2):
Yadidaṃ kim ca jagat sarvaṃ praṇa ejati nihsrtam |
Mahadbhayaṃ vajramudyataṃ ya etadviduramttaste bhavanti ||
Meaning: Whatever there in this whole manifested Universe (is the product of and) vibrates within Prana. The Supreme Being is a great terror like a raised thunder bolt. Those who know Him become immortal.

Bhagavan is called Bheemah because He is the Supreme Controller of all. In the case of His devotees, the extent of His control is related to the extent of their devotion.  He lets Himself be controlled by the devotees who are dedicated to Him. But in the case of those who do not whole heartedly devote themselves to Him, they still obey Him because of the fear of the consequences of not obeying Him.

In the Katha Upanishad (2.3.3), it says:
BhayadasyAgnistapati bhayattapati Suryaḥ |
BhayadIndrashca Vayusca mrtyurdhavati pancamaḥ ||
Meaning: From fear of Him the Fire burns; from fear of Him shines the Sun; from fear of Him Indra and Vayu, and Death, the fifth, hasten to perform their allotted functions.

Sri Parasara Bhattar stresses another aspect of His being frightful – by His punishing the Jivas who refuse to follow the proper and prescribed path of Dharma during their lifetime. He pushes them into another janma, even though this is done for the ultimate benefit of the Jiva, so that the Jiva can correct itself and have another opportunity in the next birth. Sri Bhattar notes that Bhagavan chooses this treatment only when a being does not wish to resort to the Grace that He naturally shows – Maha anugraha vimukhanam Bheemah. He gives support for this interpretation from the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 16 Verse 19):
Tan aham dvisatah kruran samsaresu naradhaman |
Ksipamy ajasram asubhan asurisv eva yonisu ||
Meaning: Those who are envious and harmful, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me repeatedly in the Samsara, the ocean of material existence, and into various demoniac species of life.

Bhiyam bhakta bhayam minati hinasti iti Bheemah – Bhagavan is called Bheemah because He destroys the fear of His devotees and saves them. Sri Bhattar is describing the prayojanam or reason for Bhagavan’s actions. He becomes Bheemah or the cause of fear to the non-devotees etc., and He metes out punishment to them for their adharmic deeds, to maintain order, and to protect His devotees. His acts help the non-conforming Jivas so that they can correct themselves and attain Him over time.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj quotes Srimad Bhagavatam (6.9.21) in support:
VayvambarAgni-ap-kshitayas-triloka Brahmadayo ye vayamudvijantah |
Harama yasmai balim antako’sau bibheti yasmad-aranam tatonaH ||
Meaning: The five great elements, the three world that are constituted from these, and all of us fear that great destroyer – the Time that will destroy us. However, the Time himself fears the great Supreme Brahman. Let that Supreme Being protect us.

Sri Krishnan refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (9.10.7):
மெய்யனாகும் விரும்பித்தொழுவார்க்கெல்லாம்
பொய்யனாகும் புறமேதொழுவார்க்கெல்லாம்
செய்யில்வாளையுகளும் திருக்கண்ணபுரத்
தையன் ஆகத்தணைப்பார்கட்கணியனே.
Meaning: To those who are truly devoted to Him, and who worship Him without any other benefit in mind than Himself – those who do not bargain with Him for benefit, He is easy to realise. To those who worship Him with some benefit in mind, He bestows this benefit, and then moves away from them; He is not accessible to them and is not attainable by them.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri gives the following support for the Nama – ‘Bhishanam abhishanam (Nrsimhottara. 6.1) – He Who is frightful and at the same time not frightful. It is well-known that in His Narasimha Avataar, Bhagavan was simultaneously a cause of intense terror to Hiranyakashipu, and a source of a great delight for Prahalada.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains the Nama as ‘bhrita mah pramanani tena vyasadi rupena iti Bheemah – In His incarnation as Veda Vyasa, He established the authorities in the form of scriptures, and so He is called Bheemah.

  1.    Bheema-paraakramah – He Who has terrific powers

Sri Adi Sankara’s words ‘Asuraadeenaam Bhayahetuh Paraakramah asya Avataareshu iti Bheemaparaakramah – He strikes terror in the heart of the enemy as His prowess is Limitless. As evident from His various Avataars, He struck terror in the hearts of the Asuras, hence He is called Bheemaparaakramah’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains that Bhagavan has terrific powers that strike terror in the hearts of the likes of Hiranyaksha, Hinranyakashipu, Ravana, Kamsa etc. This keeps the evil souls under restraint and acts as a protection for devotees. It is also of benefit to the evil souls themselves, because it keeps them under control.

Sri Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘anyeshvapi jagad-ahitaniratreshu Hiranyadishu Bheema-paraakramah – In the case of others such as Hiranya who are bent upon causing harm to the world, He becomes One of terrific valour, and controls them’.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives reference from Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi (9.2.10), who describes this Guna of Bhagavan as:
கொடுவினைப்படைகள்வல்லையாய் அமரக்கிடர்கெட அசுரர்கட்கிடர்செய்
கடுவினைநஞ்சேயென்னுடையமுதே கலிவயல்திருப்ஙபளிங்குடியார்
வடிவிணையில்லாமலர்மகள் மற்றை நிலமகள் பிடிக்கும் மெல்லடியை
கொடுவினையேணும்பிடிக்கந்யொருநாள் கூவுதல் வருதல்செய்யாயே.
Meaning: O’ Lord of Tiruppulingudi, my ambrosia who destroys terrible Asuras!  Lord wielding many fierce weapons destroyed the woes of Devas.  The peerless Lotus-dame Lakshmi and BhumaDevi serve at your Lotus feet.  That I too may press your feet, come to me or call me unto yourself!

Sri Krishnan notes that the previous Nama – Bheema, dealt with Jivas who were not following the path of Dharma or their code of conduct, whereas the current Nama deals with those who go one step further and are bent upon doing harm to the world.

Sri RadhaKrishna Shastri notes that even the fact that Bhagavan induces fear in the hearts of His enemies, turns out to be for their good in another sense as well – by constantly worrying about Bhagavan’s paraakramam, they keep Him in their minds always, and this ends up purifying them over time. He gives Slokam 7.1.30 from Srimad Bhagavatam in support:
Kamad dveshad bhayat snehad yatha bhaktyeshvare manah
Avesya tad-agham hitva bahavas tad-gatim gatah
Meaning: Many, many persons have attained liberation simply by thinking of Krishna with great attention and giving up sinful activities. This great attention may be due to lusty desires, inimical feelings, fear, affection or devotional service. One receives Krishna’s mercy simply by concentrating one’s mind upon Him.

All the Slokas of the referenced chapter in Srimad Bhagavatam explains how Bhagavan uses His paraakrama for the elimination of the evil and the preservation of the good.  These Shlokas declare that Bhagavan’s punishment to the Asuras is purely for the removal of their sins and enable them to ultimately attain Him.

In an exchange between Dharmaputra and Sage Narada, the former asks the later how is it that some extreme haters of Sriman Narayana end up attaining Him at the end of their life. In response to this, Sage Narada responds: ‘People end up thinking constantly about Bhagavan either through intense attachment (as in the case of gopis), or through intense enmity (as in the case of Shishupala), or through extreme fear (as in the case of Kamsa), or through being related to Him in one of His incarnations (as in the case of the people of Vrishni vamsa), or through pure devotion (as in the case of the likes of myself)’.
Gopyah kamat bhayat kamsah dveshat caidyAdayo nripah |
sambandhat vrishnayah snehat yuyam bhaktya vayam vibho ||

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains the Nama as – Bheemasya, draupadi-pate Rudrasya va paraakramo yasmad sa Bheema-paraakramah – He Who is the source of paraakrama of the likes of Bheema, Rudra etc.

In Summary

Anaadir BhurBhuvo Lakshmih Suveero Ruchiraangadah  |
Janano Janajanmaadih Bheemo Bheemaparaakramah |101||

He has no origin as He is Himself the cause of everything, hence He is called Anaaadih. He supports the Earth that bears the weight of every other being, so He is known as BhurBhuvah. He not only supports the Earth but also symbolises its splendour and glory, hence He is Lakshmih. He possesses great valour, so He is called Suveerah. He has very beautiful and exquisite shoulder ornaments, and hence He is knows as Ruchiraangadah.

He creates all beings, hence He is Jananah. As He is the root cause and the fundamental source of birth of all beings, He is called Janajanmaadhih. He is the cause of fear and hence He is Bheemah. He strikes terror in the hearts of the Asuras and other evil forces, so He is called Bheemaparaakramah.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.

SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 100) – PART 109

In this part, we will explore the meaning of the 100th Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


Anantarupo Anantashreeh Jitamanyur Bhayaapahah       |
Chaturashro Gabheeratma Vidisho Vyaadisho Dishah ||100|| 

Purport
He has Infinite forms and is omnipresent. He is endowed with unlimited power and Infinite wealth. He has conquered His anger and maintains poise at all times (Shaanta-akaaram). He removes the fear of rebirth in this Samsara. He is always motivated by justice and acts fairly. His mind and forms are unfathomable that is beyond comprehension. He grants appropriate fruits to various deserving persons depending upon their respective merits. As the Commander-in-Chief, He gives various orders to other Devas such as Indra and maintains the Universe. He indicates the fruits or consequences of various actions through the Vedas and scriptures, and shows the right path.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

932.   Anantarupah
933.   Anantashreeh
934.   Jitamanyuh
935.   Bhayaapahah
936.   Chaturashrah
937.   Gabheeratma
938.   Vidishah
939.   Vyaadishah
940.   Dishah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1.    Ananta-rupah – One Who has Infinite Forms

‘Ananta’ means ‘endless’ and ‘rupa’ means ‘form’. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Anantaani rupani Asya Vishva Prapancha rupena Sthitasya asya iti Anantarupah – He has infinite forms and He manifests Himself in every aspect of the Universe, hence He is called Anantarupah, One with Infinite number of Forms’.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 4 Verse 8), Bhagavan says:
Paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam |
Dharma-samsthapanarthayasambhavami yuge yuge ||
Meaning: To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of Dharma, I advent Myself Millennium after Millennium.

Even though the three reasons are given here, the primary reason for all His incarnations is the one stated first – the protection of His devotees; the other two are incidental to the first one. The form in which He appeared at the scene of Gajendra Moksham was one such form.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is –Idrishi sadyah sampadyani anantani rupani asya iti Ananta-rupah – He Who assumes innumerable forms, of His own volition, in an instant as and when the occasion demands.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (1.3.2) that extols this Guna of Bhagavan:
எளிவரு மியல்வினன் நிலைவரம் பிலபல பிறப்பாய்,
ஒளிவரு முழு நலம் முதலில கேடில வீடாம்,
தெளிதரும் நிலைமைய தொழிவிலன் முழுவதும், மிறையோன்,
அளிவரு மருளினோ டகத்தனன், புறத்தன னமைந்தே..
Meaning: Bhagavan takes several incarnations that are characterized by simplicity as needed by the circumstances. In these incarnations, He assumes all of His auspicious Kalyana Gunas with His radiant fullness that is without a beginning or an end. Forever providing the ambrosial experience of liberation to His devotees, He exists with cool grace within and without.  He makes Himself easily accessible to His devotees in these forms, while at the same time making it difficult for the foes of His devotees.

He does not mind taking the form of a Boar, a Fish, a half-man and half-lion form, etc., to fulfill the purpose of His incarnation, that is to protect His devotees.

The Azhwar in His Pasuram (2.5.6) says:
பலபலவேயாபரணம் பேரும்பலபலவே,
பலபலவேசோதிவடிவு பண்பெண்ணில்,
பலபலகண்டுண்டு கேட்டுற்றுமோந்தின்பம்,
பலபலவேஞானமும் பாம்பணைமேலாற்கேயோ.
Meaning: The Lord who is reclining on AdiSesha in the Milky Ocean, has countless variety in every respect – His ornaments are many; His Namas are many, His lustrous forms are many; He can be enjoyed in several modes – through seeing, hearing, singing, through contemplation, etc. He Who lies on Anantan is Ananta in the aspects of His Rupa etc. as well’.

Sri Krishnan interprets the Nama as referring to Bhagavan’s forms in the para, vyuha, vibhava, arca and antaryami forms, each of which consists of multiple forms (e.g., in vibhava, the many incarnations suchas Rama, Krishna etc., the numerous arca forms, the countless antaryami forms, etc.). All these forms are taken by Bhagavan for the sole purpose of protecting His devotees.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj adds another dimension to the Nama – ‘Anantam Shaashvatam rupam asya iti Ananta-rupah – He has countless forms that are also ever-lasting and permanent. Many of His forms are eternal, and the Avataars He takes are also there for us to enjoy forever’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha also uses the word Ananta in the context of everlasting and permanent – ‘Anaashaani rupani yasya sa Ananta-rupah’ (naasha – that which decays or is destroyed; anaasha – that which never decays or gets destroyed).

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri adds another dimension to the interpretation– Bhagavan’s form is endless in all dimensions – a reference to His Vishwarupam. He gives reference from the Kaivalya Upanishad – Acintyamavyaktam ananta rupam (6) – That which cannot be clearly comprehended or clearly defined, and is infinite in all dimensions.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha refers us to the Rig Vedic mantra (10.81.3) in support:
Vishvatash-cakshuruta vishvato-mukhovishvato-baahuruta vishvatas- paat |
Sam-baahubhyaamdhamati sampatatrair-dvyava bhumi janayan devaekah ||
Meaning: He Who has eyes on all sides round about Him, mouths on all sides, arms and feet on all sides; He, the One God, producing earth and heaven, keeping them together, with His arms as wings.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 13 Verse 14), Bhagavan says:
Sarvatah pani-padam tat sarvato ‘ksi-siro-mukham |
Sarvatah srutimal loke sarvam avrtya tisthati ||
Meaning: With hands and feet everywhere, with eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, with ears everywhere, He exists in the worlds, enveloping all.

  1.    Anantashreeh – He has Infinite Wealth, Glory, Power etc.

‘Ananta’ means ‘endless’ and ‘Shree’ stands for ‘Aishwaryam and Power’. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama to mean ‘Ananta Aparimita Shreeh Para Shaktih asya iti Anantashreeh – He has unlimited and infinite power and hence He is called Anantashreeh, one with unbounded capacity’.

Svesvatara Upanishad 6.8 says:
Na tasya kaaryam karanam cha vidyate na tatsamash chaabhyadhikash ca dṛishyate
Paraasya Shaktir vividhaiva Shrooyate svaabhaavikee jnaanabalakriyaa cha
Meaning: He has nothing to achieve for Himself, nor has He any organ of action. No one is seen equal or superior to Him. The Vedas speak of His exalted power, which is innate and capable of producing diverse effects and of His Omniscience and His might.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is – tebhyodeyaah sva-praapati-paryantaah anatah Sriyo’pi asya iti Anantasrih – He who has all the wealth to give to His devotees at His command, including giving the enjoyment of Himself in full to His devotees. In the case of Gajendra, Bhagavan gave him a divine body and sent him to Sri Vaikuntham. Sri Bhattar gives support from Vishnu Dharma 69 – ‘tato divya vapor-bhutva hasti-raatparamam padam jagama’.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan comments that both His Vibhutis – the leela vibhuti in this world, and the nitya vibhuti in Sri Vaikuntham, are purely for the benefit of His devotees. He refers us to Sri Andal’s Nachiyar Thirumozhi (10.10), where she refers to Emperumaan as ‘Selvar periyar’:
நல்லஎன் தோழி நாக ணைமிசை நம்பரர்
செல்வர் பெரியர் சிறுமா னிடவர்நாம் செய்வதென்
வில்லி புதுவை விட்டுசித் தர்தங்கள் தேவரை
வல்லி பரிசு வருவிப்ப ரேலது காண்டுமே
Meaning: My Dear Friends! Our Lord, who reclines on the serpent couch, is rich and powerful. What can we mere mortals do? When Sri Villiputthur’s Vishnuchitta, our Father, welcomes his Lord with proper presents, we shall see him then.

PeriyAzhwar in his Thirumozhi Pasuram (2.8.8) refers to Perumal as ‘Selvattinaal valar pillai’ –One, who, as child Krishna, was growing amidst abundant wealth.

Sri Thirumangai Azhwar’s in his Periya Thirumozhi Pasuram (7.7.1) says – ‘Thiruvukkum tiruvagiya Selva! Deivattukku Arasa!’ – ‘He Who is the Wealth for even Lakshmi – the Goddess of all Wealth! He Who is the Lord of all the Devas!’.

Sri Krishnan refers to Sri Alavandar’s Stotra Ratnam (Shloka 12):
kah Srih Sriyah paramasattvasam Ashrayah kah kah pundarika nayanah purushottamah kah |
kasya yutayuta Sata eka kalaamsakaamse vishvam vicitra citacit pravibhagavrittam ||
Meaning: ‘Who is the Deity that is the Sri for Sri (Lakshmi devi) Herself? Who is the Deity that is the embodiment of Sattva Guna? Who is the Deity that is the Supreme Purusha of all Purushas? Who is the One who is endowed with beautiful lotus-like eyes? Who is the One Deity by whose tiny fragment of Power this whole Universe consisting of the countless forms of cetana and acetana forms are created, protected, and destroyed?  It is none other than the Supreme Deity, Sriman Narayana.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri comments that Bhagavan’s Infinite Shakti is the driving force for all of us in whatever we achieve during our lives.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj uses the meaning ‘indestructible’ – avinashini, for the word ananta, and gives the interpretationas ‘ananta = avinashini Srih Sobha sampat yasya iti Anantasrih’ – He who has eternal beauty and wealth, is Anantashreeh.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha also interprets the Nama along the same lines – Ananta = naasha-rahita Srih avarupa Srih yasya sa Anantasrih –He Whose wealth is by nature is eternal.

Swami ChinmayAnanda refers to the three ‘powers’ that the Lord expresses in this Universe:

  1. Iccha Shakti –              Power by Desire
  2. Kriya Shakti –              Power of action
  3. Jnana Shakti –            Power of Knowledge

These three manifestations of His ‘powers’, and their continuous interplay, together weave the fabric of the total dynamic expressions of life in this world. The Supreme, Sriman Narayana, is the one springboard for all these vibrant aspects of life.

  1.    Jita-manyuh – He Who has conquered His anger

‘Manyu’ means ‘anger’ and ‘Jita’ means ‘one who has conquered or gained control over it’. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Manyuh Krodho Jito yena sah Jitamanyuh – He has conquered His anger and hence He is called Jitamanyuh’. Despite strong provocation, Bhagavan maintains His poise and tranquility, and is known for His Shantaakaaram i.e. calm temperament. Anger arises only out of unfulfilled desire and as Bhagavan has no desire, there is no premise for anger at all. Even when He punishes the evil doers, it is not out of anger but out of compassion. Therefore, He is rightly called Jitamanyuh, One Who is totally free from anger at all times.

Sri Parasara Bhattar continues with his interpretation of the current series of Namas in the context of Gajendra Moksham. He explains that Bhagavan controlled His anger at the Crocodile even after seeing that it was not letting go of His devotee Gajendra’s leg. Here was a Saranagata in the form of Gajendra, and this ‘creature’ in the lake was causing pain and misery to His devotee. He controlled His anger, and proceeded with His purpose calmly and took the action required to relieve Gajendra from the clutches of the Crocodile.

Perhaps the best example of His control over anger is the incident where Sage Bhrighu kicked Him on His chest, and in response, Bhagavan calmly comforted the Sage’s foot (and, in the process removed the extra eye and killed Sage’s Ahamkara or ego).

Interestingly, Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama ‘Jita-krodhah’ in Shloka 49 as ‘Bhagavan conquering the anger in others’; in other words, when He deceived the Asuras and cheated them without giving them the nectar with His Mohini Avataar and instead of getting angry with Him, the Asuras were bewildered and enchanted by His Mohini form, and thus He overcame their anger towards the Devas.

Lord Krishna describes in the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 2 Verse 62 & 63) as to how anger develops in us, and the consequences of unchecked anger:
Dhyayato visayan pumsah sangas tesupajayate |
Sangat sanjayate kamah kamat krodho ‘bhijayate ||
Meaning: While contemplating on the sense-objects, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.

Krodhad bhavati sammohah sammohat smrti-vibhramah |
Smrti-bhramsad buddhi-naso buddhi-nasat pranasyati ||
Meaning: From anger, delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost, one sinks again into the material world (Samsara).

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri notes that there are times when Bhagavan forces Himself to become angry, especially if the offense is such that the subject needs to be punished; but in these cases, He gets His anger under control as soon as the objective of anger is achieved. One such case is when Samudra Rajan did not respond to His ‘request’ for assistance during the crossing of the Sea to Lanka.

Sri Shastri points to another Nama that has a similar interpretation – ‘Jitakrodhah’ (Shloka 49, Nama 463), and distinguishes between the three terms– manyu, kopam, and krodham. ‘Manyu’ is the state where one feels anger at a mental level, but this is not visible externally. ‘Kopam’ is the state when the anger is visible through facial indications such as reddish eyes. ‘Krodham’ is the state when this feeling finds expression through harsh words, banging on things, and other actions indicating the state of anger. Bhagavan has all these states of anger under full control, and ‘becomes’ angry only when needed, but still fully under His control.

Sri Shastri points to the two incidents from Srimad Ramayana where Sage Valmiki describes Lord Rama ‘getting’ angry during His battle with Khara and Dooshana:
Vinamya dhanur-bhimam tunyoshcoddhrityasayakan |
Krodhamaharayat teevram vadhartham sarva-rakshasam || (3.24.33)
Meaning: Sri Rama bent His bow and set the arrows to them, and, for the purposes of the destruction of the Rakshasas, and ‘got angry’. In other words, He has His anger under control, and summons it only when He wants it to manifest.

The second instance is when Hanuman was bleeding from the arrows of Ravana while Hanuman was carrying Lord Rama on his shoulders. Lord Rama again ‘got angry’. When He Himself undergoes personal suffering in any of His incarnations, He is in complete control of His anger. But when His devotee suffers, He deliberately and knowingly ‘invites‘ anger – in other words, under His full control, He decides to get angry as He cannot tolerate His devotees’ suffering.

When Ravana hit Hanuman in the forehead, and Hanuman was bleeding, Rama reached the peak of anger:
ततो रामो महातेजा रावणेन कृतव्रणम् |
दृष्ट्वा प्लवगशार्दूलं क्रोधस्य वशमेयुवान् || ६-५९-१३६
Meaning: Seeing Hanuman, the Tiger among the monkeys, getting wounded by Ravana, Rama was transported with anger.

Thereupon, Rama stuck Ravana with a great force with his shaft shining brightly as the thunderbolt. At that point, instead of continuing the attack Ravana, Rama calmly told him: ‘I find you are completely tired and destabilized, and so I will not kill you now. I will permit you to go back to your palace, take rest and recuperate, and then come back, and then you can see My true Might’.

प्रयाहि जानामि रणार्दितस्त्वं | प्रविश्य रात्रिंचरराज लङ्काम् |
अश्वस्य निर्याहि रथी च धन्वी | तदा बलम् प्रेक्ष्यसि मे रथस्थः || ६-५९-१४३
Meaning: O, King of the Ranger of night! I know you have been tormented in the battle. Go and return to Lanka. Having regained your breath, come back in your chariot with your bow and then standing in your chariot, you will witness once more my prowess.

After Lord Rama killed Ravana, He asked Vibheeshana to proceed to perform the final rites for his brother. When Vibheeshana hesitated because of the feeling of enmity, Lord Rama pointed out to him that the enmity between Him and Ravana ended the moment Ravana was dead.

Marana antaani variaani nirvrittam nahprayojanam |
kriyataam asya samskaaromamApyesha yatha tava || 6-109-25||
Meaning: Lord Rama says, ‘The enmity (between Ravana and Me) was only until Ravana’s death. The purpose of our mission has been accomplished. Now he is as related to Me as he is to you. Now please proceed to do the final rites for your brother’.

The above incidents demonstrate Lord Rama’s total control over His anger.

  1.    Bhayaapahah – He Who destroys the fear (of Samsara) in the mind of the devotees

The word ‘Bhaya’ means ‘fear’ and ‘Apahah’ refers to ‘one who removes it’. Using this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Bhayam Samsarajam Pumsaam Apaghnan Bhayaapahah – He removes the fear arising out of Samsara or the repeated cycle of births and deaths in the mind of His devotees and hence He is called Bhayaapahah, the dispeller of the fear of repeated worldly life’.  In Shloka 89 we saw another version of the same Nama as ‘BhayaNaashanah’ meaning the remover of fear from the minds of those who follow the path of Dharma.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the current Nama as Asmadaad Inamapi sva-vatsalyena taadrisha anaathatva bhayam vadhyaat iti AshamsanArhah – Because of His love for His devotees, He can be relied upon to dispel the fear. Sri Bhattar quotes – ‘Bhayemahati magnaanshca traati nityam Janaradanah’ – Janardana will always protect those who are drowned in the great fear (of Samsara). It is the trust that we repose in Bhagavan and we can rely on Him to protect us without fail, if we surrender unto Him.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives references from the Divya Prabandham where the Azhwars extol this Guna using the word ‘Namban’ meaning ‘One Who can be trusted’.

  • nambanai narasinganai’ (PeriyAzhwar Thirumozhi 4.4.9) ‘Lord Narasimha who can be trusted (to protect us)
  • nambane! …Azhi mun Endi kamba-ma-kari kol viduttaane! (PeriyAzhwar Thirumozhi 5.1.9) – ‘He the Most Trustworthy One when it comes to the protection of His devotees! He came with His Cakra in His hand and relieved the pain and distress of the great elephant Gajendra.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri comments that fear is the state that occurs because of anticipation of some problem, and its effect and intensity is even more severe and lasts longer than the problem itself. Those who trust in the Lord do not have this fear, and when any problem does arise, they accept it.  A true devotee is one who sees pain and pleasure without any difference – that is, he neither rejoices when something good happens, nor suffers when something bad happens. This is revealed to us in several verses in the Bhagavad Gita:

  • sukha-duhkhe same krtva labhalabhau jayajayau |
    tato yuddhaya yujyasva naivam papam avapsyasi ||2.38||

    Meaning: Do fight for the sake of fighting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat—and, by so doing, you shall never incur sin.  
  • duhkhesv anudvigna-manah sukhesu vigata-sprhah |
    vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah sthita-dhir munir ucyate ||2.56||

    Meaning:  One who is not disturbed despite the threefold miseries, who is not elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady mind.
  1.    Catur-ashrah – One Who is skilled in all aspects

This Nama has several meanings:

  1. One Who is skilled in all aspects
  2. One Who is fair to everybody
  3. One from whom wishes are asked for
  4. One Who pervades in all four directions
  5. One Who nourishes and feeds everything in all four directions
  6. One Who is worshipped by the knowledgeable people

Literally this Nama means ‘the square shaped one’. The idiomatic interpretation is ‘The fair and just one who teats everyone equally’. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Nyaaya samavetah Chaturashrah Pumsaam Karma anurupam Phalam Prayacchati iti – He is always motivated by justice and acts fairly, hence He is called Charurashrah; He distributes the fruits fairly as per the actions (Karma) of each person’.

He makes sure that each person gets a fair treatment, be it reward or punishment, purely based on their Karma. He does not show any personal bias and hence He is called Chaturashrah or the fair one.

The term ‘Catur’ refers to the number ‘Four’, and ‘ashra’ means ‘corner’, so combining this, Catruashrah becomes a geometrical Square. This term has been used to mean ‘One Who is fair-minded, or is just to everyone’.  Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama as ‘One Who deals squarely with all’.  

Sri Parasara Bhattar uses the meaning ‘One Who is skilled in all aspects’, using the term Catura to mean ‘One Who is skilled’ – a reference to one’s Saamarthya, so He Who is skilled in all aspects is Caturashrah.

Srimad Andavan explains that Bhagavan has this Nama to indicate that He does whatever is appropriate for the benefit of the devotees under all circumstances. In the context of Gajendra Moksham, He relieved the crocodile from its curse, even as He fulfilled the desire of Gajendra to perform the kainkaryam to Him, and He demonstrated to all of us that He will protect those who surrender unto Him.

All His actions are appropriate and consistent with His real nature – ‘Kaakkumiyalvinan’ as described by Sri NammAzhwar – One Whose real nature is that of protection.

Using the meaning ‘Caturya’ for the word ‘catur’, Sri Krishnan gives an example of Bhagavan’s Caturyam from Srimad Ramayana. During Vali vadham, when Vali lies wounded by Rama’s arrow, he starts accusing Rama of unfairly hitting him while hiding behind a tree. After Vali and Rama exchange some words, just before dying, Vali praises Rama for His righteousness. It is not easy for a mortally wounded one to praise the one who is causing death. This is only possible by the ‘One who is a Caturashrah – skilled in all respects’.

Sri Ananta Krishna Shastry gives an elaborate list of examples and explanations for the term Catura (four) in the Nama:

  1. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha – Bhagavan distributes these to the deserving ones in accordance with their Karmas;
  2. He nourishes the four kinds of creatures – born of womb, born of egg, born of sweat, and those that emerge out of Earth;
  3. He protects four kinds of people – the distressed, those desirous of knowing Him, the desirers of wealth, and the wise ones.
  4. He is known by the four Vedas.
  5. His command is obeyed in all four corners of the world.

Sri Vasishtha gives the meaning ‘One from whom something is asked’, to the term ‘catur’ – catati catyate va iti – Catur.  Sri Vasishtha gives an alternative meaning as ‘catasro disho ashnute Caturashrah’ – One Who pervades in all four directions, or ‘Catasrshu dikshu sthitanam praaninaam bhojanasya daata iti Vishnuh’ – One Who nourishes and feeds everything in all four directions.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains the Nama as – Caturaih Sriyate =sevyate iti Catur-Asrah – He Who is worshipped by those who have the knowledge to understand His greatness.

The Story of Aghasura

The demon Aghasura was the younger brother of Putana and Bakasura. He assumed the form of a great python, expanded to the length of eight miles and grew as high as a mountain. He lay on the road with his mouth wide open, and Krishna’s friends playfully entered into the demon being curious about the giant form that looked like a cave, and feeling confident in Krishna’s protection.

Finally, Krishna also entered into the mouth of the demon in order to protect His friends, and then expanded His own body to such an extent that the demon suffocated and died, and then brought all of His friends back to life and out of the demon.

Lord Krishna once again showed His benevolent nature by rescuing His friends and giving liberation to Aghasura.

Jai Shri Krishna!

  1.    GabheerAtma – He is of deep and profound nature

The basic meaning of Gabheera is ‘deep and unfathomable’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as Atma svarupam chittam va gabheeram paricchettum ashakyam asya iti Gabheeratma – His mind and form are deep and unfathomable that is beyond comprehension, hence He is called Gabheeratma – a complex personality’. Our mind and sense organs are finite and cannot comprehend Bhagavan’s full form and intellect which are Infinite, hence He is rightly called Gabheeratma, the incomprehensible one.

Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama as ‘One who has a deep and profound nature’, that is beyond the understanding of even the likes of Brahma and others – anyesham Catur-mukha-mukhanam apradhrishya gaambheeryah GabheerAtma.

Sri NammAzhwar points out that Brahma can know things that he created, but cannot have full knowledge of all the things that existed long before he was created. Thus, Brahma’s knowledge of the One who created all the things including him, is not totally within his comprehension:

  • Surar arivu aru nilai (Thiruvai Mozhi 1.1.8) – Even Brahma and Devas do not know Him fully.
  • Unarndu unarndu unarilum irai nilai unarvadu aridu uyirgaal (Thiruvai Mozhi 1.3.6) – Despite deep contemplation and knowing the Self, it is not possible to fully comprehend the Supreme Being.

In fact, Bhagavan is One whose greatness is such that even He cannot know it – ‘tanakkum tan tanmai arivariyaan’.

Sri Thirumazhisai Azhwar in his Naanmugan Thiruvandadhi Pasuram (73) says:
ஆரே யறிவார் அனைத்துலகு முண்டுமிழ்ந்த,
பேராழி யான்றன் பெருமையை,- கார்செறிந்த
கண்டத்தான் எண்கண்ணான் காணான், அவன்வைத்த
பண்டைத்தா னத்தின் பதி.
Meaning:  Who can comprehend the greatness of Emperumaan who is like the deep Ocean, and who swallowed all the Universes at the time of pralaya, and then spit them out at the time of creation? No one! The eight- eyed Brahma (four-faced), and dark blue throated Siva (because he swallowed the poison), do not even know the greatness of the surest means to reach Him – the Carama Shloka.

Sage Valmiki describes Lord Rama as ‘Samudra iva gaambheerye’ – ‘As deep as the Ocean’; Bhagavan conceals His greatness such that even the Devas can’t easily recognise His greatness without deep devotion.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri elaborates that His mind is such that He never gets disturbed easily, and does not easily reveal what is in His mind, as He considers pros and cons of everything deeply.

Swami ChinmayAnanda describes the unfathomable nature of Bhagavan through the following words: ‘One Who, in His Real Nature, is too deep to be fathomed by the frail instrument of our mind. Depth here indicates profoundness – the Supreme Essence pervading the Universe is unfathomably profound in its significance and glory.’

Sri Vasishtha uses ‘Gabheera gambheerau –to mean ‘deep’. The term ‘Atma’ here refers to ‘sva-rupa’ or inherent nature. Sri Vasishtha gives interpretations based on the root ‘gam – gatau- to go’ – gacchati gamyate praapyate anena – He because of Whom everything is attained or He Who is the object of attainment, meditation or worship, is Gabheerah. He is also Gabheerah as He makes everything move through death or decay.

  1.    Vidishah – One Whose nature, forms, and qualities are spread out in all directions

The Nama Vidishah has the following meanings:

  1. One Whose nature, forms, and qualities are spread out in all directions
  2. One Who can be reached from all directions
  3. He Who bestows all benefits on His devotees
  4. He Who pervades everything and is everywhere
  5. He Who is the cause of happiness for the knowers (of Brahman, based on ‘vid’ – to know)
  6. He Who has revealed all Shastras in elaborate detail

This Nama and the next two Namas all have root word as ‘Dish’ (Vi-dishaH, Vyaa-dishah and Dishah) but has different meanings. It can be used to mean direction, order or command, daanam or bestowing etc. The different interpreters use different combinations of these meanings in their commentary for the three Namas.

Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Vividhaani Phalaani Adhikaarebhyo Visheshena Dishati iti Vidishah- He grants various appropriate fruits to the various deserving persons depending on their respective merits, hence He is called Vidishah, the bestower’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is: ‘tesham vinaya gadgada stutigiraam asyadure vividha dishah deshah iti Vidishah’ – He Who is far above everything, and beyond the reach of words. Bhagavan is One Whose nature, forms, and qualities are immeasurable, as if they are spread out in space in all directions. Even when the Devas seek Him by praising Him in moving words, His Kalyana Gunas are far beyond their description or reach.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives references from the Divya prabandham in support to extol the virtues of the Lord:

  • Sri Thirumangai Azhwar in his Periya Thirumozhi Pasuram (1.7.8) says:
    நாத்தழும்பநான்முகனும் ஈசனுமாய்முறையால்ஏ

    த்த, அங்கோராளரியாய் இருந்தவம்மானதிடம்
    Meaning: While the four-headed Brahma and Siva praise Him till their tongues swell, He reveals Himself to devotees like Prahlada etc. as per their wish.
  • Sri NammAzhwar explains in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (2.7.12) as:
    தாமோதரனைத்தனிமுதல்வனை ஞாலமுண்டவனை,

    ஆமோதரமறிய வொருவ ர்க்கென்றெதொழுமவர்கள்,
    தாமோதரனுருவாகிய சிவற்கும்திசைமுகற்கும்,
    ஆமோதரமறிய எம்மானையென்னாழிவண்ணனையே.
    Meaning:  Can even those who worship ‘Damodara’ know his greatness? He is the first-cause, and the swallower of the Universe.  Can even Brahma or Siva, performing steady contemplation, fathom his greatness when they are but a part of him?
  • Sri NammAzhwar explains in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (10.7.6) as:
    திருமாலிருஞ்சோலையானே ஆகிச் செழுமூ வுலகும் தன்ஒ

    ருமா வயிற்றி னுள்ளேவைத்து ஊழி யூழி தலையளிக்கும்தி
    ருமாலென்னை யாளுமால் சிவனும் பிரமனும்காணாது
    அருமா லெய்தி யடிபரவ அருளை யீந்த அம்மானே
    Meaning:  He shows grace to the whole Universe at the time of pralaya by protecting all the Jivas in His stomach. Siva and Brahma contemplate on Him and pay homage to Him in humility yet they cannot comprehend Him fully. He has lovingly given His graceful feet to me for worship.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan explains that the Nama signifies that Bhagavan can be reached by calling Him from far and wide – ‘Vividhah dishadeshah yasya sa Vidishah’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj’s interpretation is also along the same lines – ‘Vishesheha dishati = dadati bhaktebhyah abhishtam iti Vi-dishah – He Who bestows the desired objects to His devotees’.

Swami ChinmayAnanada echoes the same interpretation: ‘One Who is unique in His giving’. He is divinely liberal, magnificently benevolent in fulfilling the earnest desires of all His true devotees.

Sri Vasishtha indicates the root for the Nama as ‘dish – atisarjane’ meaning ‘to grant, to allow (atisarjanam = daanam)’- He grants or bestows various fruits in accordance with one’s Karmas. Sri Vasishtha further comments that the Nama also signifies that Bhagavan pervades everything, everywhere, in all directions, and there is no place where He is not present.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha looks at the Nama as Vidishah, and derives the meaning based on ‘vid’ meaning ‘to know’ He explains the Nama as ‘sukham yasmat sa Vidishah – He Who is the cause of happiness in those who are knowledgeable (about Brahman).

Sri Raghunatha Thirtha explains the Nama as ‘Vi = atishayena, dishati = upadishati iti Vidishah’ – He Who shows in a special way, referring to Bhagavan showing the procedures for performance of sacrifices etc. – ‘vi = atishayena yajna kriya prakaran dishati = upadishati iti Vidishah’. The explanation can equally apply to His revelation of all the Shastras and Dharma.

  1.    Vyaadishah – He Who Commands

The basic root word is ‘Aadesh’ meaning ‘to command or to order’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara’s interpretation is ‘Vividhaam Ajnaam Shakraadeenaam Kurvan Vyaadishah – He gives various orders to the various Gods like Indra, Brahma etc., hence He is called Vyaadishah, the command-issuer’. The Universe behaves in an orderly manner obeying the laws of nature very faithfully. The Gods get their mandates from Bhagavan and carry them out scrupulously so the Universe functions smoothly. Thus, He is the one who directs the Gods with specific commands and is therefore called Vyaadishah, the Commander.

The word ‘Vyaadish’ means ‘to distribute, to divide among, to appoint, dispatch to any place or duty, direct, order, command’.  Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘One Who establishes the likes of Brahma and Rudra in their respective functions – tesham abhimatam tat-tat padam atisrijati iti Vyaadishah.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (5.2.8), where the Azhwar refers to Bhagavan as the One who establishes the Devas in their respective positions:
இறுக்கு மிறையிறுத்துண்ண எவ்வுல குக்கும்தன் மூர்த்தி,
நிறுத்தினான் தெய்வங்க ளாக அத்தெய்வ நாயகன் றானே
மறுத்திரு மார்வன் அவன்றன் பூதங்கள் கீதங்கள் பாடி,
வெறுப்பின்றி ஞாலத்து மிக்கார் மேவித் தொழுதுய்ம்மி னீரே
Meaning: To accommodate the people with different desire for worship, Bhagavan formed the anya devatas from His body, and established them in their various positions so that offerings can be made to them, which ultimately reach Him. So, it is none other than Bhagavan who established the other deities in their various positions, so that they can collect offerings from their respective devotees, and pass them on to Him’. 

In Srimad Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 7 Verse 21), Lord Krishna says:
yo yo yam yam tanum bhaktah sraddhayarcitum icchati |
tasya tasyacalam sraddham tam eva vidadhamy aham   ||
Meaning: As soon as a devotee desires to worship any of the other Devas, I steady their faith and fulfil their desires so that they can devote themselves to the deity of their choice.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan explains the Nama as ‘Visheshena Adishati iti Vyaadishah’ – He Who bestows the benefits as they deserve in accordance with their Karmas.

Sri Krishnan gives Bhagavan’s Vamana incarnation as an example: Bhagavan was satisfied that He fulfilled Indra’s wish; Indra was satisfied that he got his wish fulfilled; Mahabali was happy that he got the chance to give daanam to Maha Vishnu Himself; everyone in all the worlds got the blessings of His Holy Feet; The Azhwars were happy that they got to praise the Holy Feet that accomplished so much for the devotees; and the Shastras themselves were happy that Bhagavan proved their declaration that all the worlds belong to Him.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha uses the root ‘dish – atisarjane’ meaning ‘to grant, to allow’ (atisarjanam = daanam), and explains the Nama as ‘Vividham Asamantaat dishati = dadati iti Vyaadishah – He Who bestows diverse benefits on devotees from all directions is Vyaadishah.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj derives the Nama as: ‘Visheshena Adishati = Ajnapayati iti Vyaadishah’ – He Who commands in a special way (because everyone and everything is under His command, and there is no exception, it is command in a special way).

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan explains the Nama as – ‘Vividhaan adhikaaraantasya Adishati = Ajnaapayati adhikaarini tasmin evam eva ucitamiti bhaavah’ – He gives orders or commands to the different Devas as deemed appropriate.

Swami ChinmayAnanada explains the Nama as ‘One Who is unique in His Commanding Power. One Who orders even the phenomenal powers, the deities and the Gods’.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains the Nama as ‘Visheshena Adishati = Ajnaapayati iti Vyadishah’ – One Who has unique and special commanding power.

  1.    Dishah – He Who shows the righteous path

The word ‘Dish’ is used to mean ‘to show’. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Samastanaam Karmanaam Phalaani Dishan Vedatmana Dishah – He indicates the fruits or consequences of various actions through the medium of the Vedas, hence He is called Dishah, the pointer’. It is often very difficult to know the right course of action under a given circumstance. Bhagavan has given guidance through the Vedas for all complex issues, hence He is called Dishah, one who shows the right path.

Sri Parasara Bhattar uses the meaning ‘command’ for the word Disha in explaining this Nama. In addition to establishing the likes of Brahma and Rudra in their positions, Bhagavan also commands and controls them in their proper functions. This is unlike His treatment of devotees such as Gajendra, who are treated with intimacy – na taan Gajendravat antarangi karoti, kim tu Ajnapayati iti Dishah.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri interprets the Nama as signifying that Bhagavan, in the form of the Vedas, shows what is good to follow, and what is bad that should be avoided.

Sri T.S. Krishnamoorthy interprets this as: ‘One Who, in the form of the Vedas, bestows on different beings the fruits of their ritualistic actions’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains the Nama as – Dishati = dadati Karmaphalam iti Dishah – He Who gives the fruits of karma to the Jivas.

Swami ChinamyAnanda captures the same sense in his explanation: ‘One Who advises and gives knowledge. Lord Narayana has gives the knowledge of the Self in the form of Shrutis’.

Sri Raghunatha Thirtha explains the Nama as ‘Dishyate = Bhaktaih pracchyateiti Dishah’ – He Who is sought after or enquired into by the devotees, is Dishah.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains Dishah as ‘He Who transfers knowledge of Dharma – dharma jnana atideshanaat Dishah (‘vid – atisarjane’ meaning ‘to grant, to allow’).

Sri Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Dishati = Ajnaapayati Veda mukhenavishva nibandhanena ca, evam kartavyam evam na iti Dishah’ – He ordains, through the Vedas, the ways in which things should be done, and ways in which things should not be done.

In Summary

Anantarupo Anantashreeh Jitamanyur Bhayaapahah       |
Chaturashro Gabheeratma Vidisho Vyaadisho Dishah ||100||

He has infinite forms and shapes as He manifests Himself in each aspect of the Universe, hence He is called Anantarupah. He has unlimited and infinite power and so He is called Anantashreeh, one with unbounded capacity. He has conquered his anger and maintains a serene (Shaanta-akaaram) disposition, hence He is called Jitamanyuh. He removes the fear arising out of Samsara or repeated cycle of births and deaths in the minds of his devotees and hence He is called Bhayaapahah.

He is always motivated by justice and acts fairly, so He is called Charurashrah. His mind and form are unfathomable and beyond comprehension, hence He is called Gabheeratma. He grants appropriate fruits to various deserving persons depending on their respective merits, hence He is called Vidishah.  As the Commander-in-Chief, He gives various orders to Devas like Indra, hence He is called Vyaadishah.  He indicates the fruits or consequences of various actions through the medium of the 

 

Vedas, hence He is called Dishah, one who shows the right path.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.

SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 99) – PART 108

In this part we will explore the meaning of the 99th Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


Uttaarano Dushkritiha Punyo DuSvapnaNaashanah   |
Veerahaa Rakshanah Santo Jivanah Paryavasthitah ||99||

Purport
He enables people to cross over the Samsara Sagara, the suffering of this worldly life. He destroys the Sins arising out of evil acts and creates auspicious effects for those who worship Him. He eliminates the bad dreams of those who meditate on Him and destroys the multiple and aimless paths of people by granting them liberation. He protects all the three worlds and manifests Himself in the form of ‘righteous’ for the sake of increasing knowledge and humility. He is the life giver and pervades everything in this Universe.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

923.   Uttaaranah
924.   Dushkritiha
925.   Punyah
926.   Dus-Svapna-Naashanah
927.   Veerahaa
928.   Rakshanah
929.   Santah
930.   Jivanah
931.   Paryavasthitah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

923.   Uttaaranah – He Who lifts up

The word ‘ut’ is a prefix to denote ‘intensity’ and ‘taarana’ is derived from the root ‘tr – plavana santaranayoh’ meaning ‘to enable someone to cross over or swim’.  Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Samsaara saagaraat Uttaarayati iti Uttaaranaah – He enables people to cross over the Samsara Sagara or the suffering of the worldly life, hence He is called Uttaaranah, One Who enables His devotees to cross over this Samsara Sagara.

Sri Parasara Bhattar continues with his interpretation in the context of Gajendra Moksham and explains that the Nama refers to Bhagavan lifting both the elephant and the crocodile from the pond – tau sarasah uttaaritavaan. Sri Bhattar uses the word ‘tau’ to emphasise that He lifted both from the pond.  Bhagavan protected both the elephant and the crocodile, thereby relieving the crocodile also of its curse and thus liberated it.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan gives the same interpretation also – sarovaraat Gajendram uttaarayamasa iti Uttaaranah. Most other interpreters explain the Nama as a reference to Bhagavan lifting the devotees from the Samsara Saagara (Life).

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains the Nama to mean ‘One Who lifts us out of the Ocean’.  By identifying through our body-mind-intellect with the changing whirls of matter around us, we assume the changes which provide us the horrible sorrow of mortal finitude. We can lift ourselves from the giddy changes in these whirls of finite matter, by fixing our thoughts upon Him, the one Consciousness that illumines all changes in all living creatures. With constant meditation on Him, we get uplifted into a state of Immortality – changeless, blissful, and supremely satisfying.  Hence Sri Narayana is called ‘the Uplifter or the Saviour’.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as: bhavartisantaptaanaam bhavac- charana Agatanaam uttitiIrshunaam Uttaarano naaviko naaveva ityarthah – He Who, like a person rowing a boat to help cross a river, helps the Samsari who is tortured by the heat of Samsara. Bhagavan helps those who surrender unto Him in crossing over the ocean of Samsara.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains the Nama in terms of the pranava mantra that lifts up the spirits of the Sanyasins etc. – utkrishtah taarah pranavo yesham ta uttaarh sannyasinaH tesham nah sukham yasmat sa Uttaaranah.

  1.    Dushkriti-ha – He Who slays the evil-doers

Sri Adi Sankara offers two different interpretations for this Nama. The first one is ‘Dushkriteeh Paapasamjnitaa Hanti iti Dushkritiha – He destroys the Sins arising out of evil acts, hence He is called Dushkritiha – the Destroyer of Sins’.

The other interpretation is ‘Ye Paapakarinah Taan Hanti iti va Dushkritiha – He destroyers those who perform sinful acts, hence He is called Dushkritiha, the Destroyer of evil doers’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama in terms of Bhagavan killing the crocodile that seized the leg of the devotee Gajendra who was involved in Bhagavad kainkaryam, and threatened his life. Sri Bhattar continues with this explanation and gives reference from the Vishnu Dharma (69) – sthalastham daarayaamasa graaham cakrena Madhavah – Madhava slew the crocodile with His discus.

In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 4 Verse 8), Bhagavan assures that:
Paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam |
Dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge ||
Meaning: For the protection of the righteous, and to annihilate the evil, as well as to reestablish Dharma, I advent Myself Millennium after Millennium.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan also interprets the Nama in the context of Gejendra Moksham – ‘dushkritim graaham hatavaan iti Dushkriti-ha – He Who destroyed the crocodile that committed a sin towards a devotee.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan gives references from Divya Prabandham where this Guna of Bhagavan is extolled:

  • Polla arakkanaik killik kalaindaanai (Sri Andal in Thiruppavai Pasuram 11) – He Who got rid of the ferocious demon as if like plucking a weed off the ground;
  • Vezham muvaamai nalgi mudalai tunittaanai (Sri Thirumangai Azhwar’s Periya Thirumozhi 6.8.3) – Bhagavan came on Garuda (who is the incarnation of the Vedas), and destroyed the crocodile and removed the pain and suffering of Gajendra.

We see this act of Bhagavan annihilating the evil forces in all His incarnations. Lord Ranganatha also displayed His anger when the priest committed apacaram against Sri Thiiruppaan Azhwar.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri reminds us that it is not only Bhagavan who redeems us from our sins, even chanting His Nama is just as effective. While coming to the aid of Draupadi, Lord Krishna assured Rukmini that even before He could go and help Draupadi, His Nama had already protected her when she cried out for Him in distress. Bhagavan also reforms those who are inadvertent sinners. He destroys the sins of those who surrender unto Him.

This is what Sri Thirumangai Azhwar means when he declares ‘nalam tarum Sollai naan kandu konden Narayana ennum Namam – I have learnt the Narayana Nama that bestows goodness’.

ram

We have also heard ‘Ram se Bada Ram ka Naam’ meaning Lord Rama’s Nama is even greater than Him. This is manifested in Ramayana when the Vanaras wrote the name of Lord Rama on the stones, and the stones started floating on the Sea making a bridge (Setu) to Lanka.

Swami ChimayAnanda interprets this Nama as when bad actions (Dush-kritis) are undertaken by anyone, prompted by sensuous desires, they leave impressions (Vasanas), and these always have a propensity to make them repeat them. When one turns the mind towards Lord Narayana, the Self is emptied of these existing Vasanas, and so the Lord is indicated as the ‘Destroyer of the Sins’.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj explains the Nama as – Dushkritih hanti prapannanam iti Dushkriti-ha – One Who destroys the sin of the prapannas, those who have sought refuge in Him.

  1.    Punyah – The Purifier

Sri Adi Sankara offers two interpretations, the first of which is ‘Smaranaadi Kurvataam Sarveshaam Punyam Karoti iti Punyah – He creates auspicious effects for those who worship Him by techniques such as meditation, prayer, recitation of Namas etc. and hence He is called Punyah, the bestower of auspicious results’.

The second interpretation is ‘Sarveshaam Shruti Smriti Lakshanayaa vaachaa Punyam Aachaashta iti va Punyah – Through the medium of Vedas and other scriptures, He gives the ways and means of earning punya and explains the importance of doing auspicious deeds, hence He is called Punyah, the one who spreads the message of Punya’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains this Nama in the context of Gajendra Moksham. He explains that those who hear the story of Gajendra Moksham become Pure and their sins are relieved, as He rid the sins of Gajendra and the Crocodile.

There are two derivations of the word ‘Punyah’ – first, the root ‘Pu – pavane’ meaning ‘to purify’, and the second as ‘Pun – Subha karmani’ meaning ‘to be pious’.   Sri Parasara Bhattar gives the definition – Punaati iti Punyah – He who purifies is Punyah, which is derived from the root Pu – pavane.   Sri Bhattar points out that Bhagavan has this Nama because He purifies even the worst of the sinners and makes them fit for extolling Him.

In the Shloka ‘Maanasam Vaachikam Paapam Karmanaa Samupaarjitam Shree Rama Smaranenaiva vyopahati na samshayah’, it says that any sin committed in mind, in speech or in action gets eradicated just by remembering the Rama Nama. This is beyond doubt’.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan observes that the Nama ‘Punyam’ is a favourite of the Azhwars.  Among the references he gives are from Sri Thirumazhisai Azhwar’s –  ‘Anantan mel kidanda em Punniya!” (Tiruccanda viruttam 45), and from Sri Thirumangai Azhwar’s – ‘un adiyen manam pugunda ap pulava! Punniyane!’ (Periya Thirumozhi 3.5.7).

The Dharma Chakram writer explains that just as the thoughts of indriya-sukham are thoughts that are not conducive to His realisation, the thoughts about Him produce the purity that leads to His realisation.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha says ‘pavata iti, puyate va anena iti Punyah – pavitrah papanaviddhah Subho va – He who purifies, or One by whom things are purified is Punyah; or, One who is pure, devoid of any sin, auspicious,  etc.  He gives the example of Bhagavan in the form of the Sun purifying all objects in the Universe, in addition to being pure Himself.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives the derivation as ‘punati Subham karma Acarati iti Punyah – One Who observes pious activities is Punyah.  Punyah means ‘One who is excellent in observing the pious activities’, and not just in the sense of being good.  Bhagavan sets the example to His devotees on performing pious acts by performing them Himself.

The Story of Kubera’s Sons

Nalakubera and Manigriva, were the sons of Lord Kubera, the God of Wealth.  Once the two brothers were having fun on the banks of the river Mandakini Ganges.  They were very intoxicated and enamoured in the company of women.  Just then, Sage Narada was passing by and the women scampered to cover themselves at the sight of the venerable Sage. However, Nalakubera and Manigriva were so intoxicated that they could not appreciate the presence of the great Sage and therefore remained oblivious to his presence and failed to pay their respects to the great Sage.

On seeing them so degraded by intoxication, Sage Narada, desiring their welfare, decided to reform them and exhibited his mercy upon them by cursing them. Sage Narada cursed them thus: ‘You shall remain as two trees in Gokula forever’. Hearing this, the wives of Nalakubera and Manigreeva fell at the Sage’s feet and asked him to forgive their husbands. Sage Narada relented and said, ‘A curse once given cannot be retracted. It can only be modified or lessened. Your husbands will be released by Lord Vishnu himself when he incarnates as Krishna’.

Sage Narada therefore contemplated that they should remain for one hundred years, in the time of the Devas, in the form of trees, and after that they would be fortunate enough to see the Supreme Lord, face to face, by His causeless mercy. And thus they would become great devotees of the Lord and be liberated. After this, the great Sage Narada returned to his abode and the two Devas turned into trees, known as the twin Arjuna trees.

Krishna was tied to a mortar by Ma Yashodha as a punishment for his pranks.  The child Krishna was dragging the wooden-mortar to which he had been tied and as he passed between the two Arjuna trees, the mortar stuck in between the two trees.

With a mighty heave, the little Krishna pulled it forward; the force of the pull uprooted the trees and they crashed to the ground. Immediately, two purified heavenly beings in resplendent clothes appeared from the trees and paid their respects to Lord Krishna. Thus, the Kubera’s sons were released from Sage Narada’s curse.

Nalakubera and Manigriva immediately offered their prayers to the child Krishna, the master of Gokula.  The Lord, bound to the wooden grinding mortar by the ropes of Yashoda, began to smile and said, ‘It was already known to Me that My great devotee-Sage Narada had shown his causeless mercy by saving you from the abominable condition of pride due to possession of extraordinary beauty and opulence in the family. He has saved you from gliding down into the lowest condition of hellish life.

You are very fortunate because you had the great opportunity to see him. If someone is able to see a great saintly person like Sage Narada, who is always serene and merciful to everyone, then immediately that conditioned soul becomes liberated. This is exactly like being situated in the full light of the Sun: there cannot be any visionary impediment.

Therefore, O Nalakubera and Manigriva, your lives have now become successful because you have developed ecstatic love for Me. This is your last birth within this material existence. Now you can go back to your heavenly abode, and by remaining in the attitude of devotional service, you will be liberated in this very life.

After this, they circumambulated the Lord many times and bowed down before Him again and again, and they left. As the Lord remained bound up with ropes to the grinding mortar, Nanda Maharaj and others rushed to the site hearing the loud crash of the trees. Nanda Maharaja untied the knots to free his child and picked him up with great relief and affection. He was relieved and glad that the falling trees had not hurt his baby.

Jai Shri Krishna!

  1. Dus-Svapna-Naashanah – The Remover of evil dreams

The word ‘Duh’ stands for bad and ‘Svapna’ means dream. Naashanah is one who destroys or forestalls. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Bhaavinah Anarthasya Soochakaan Dussvapnaan Naashayati Dhyaatah Stutah Keertitah Poojitash cheti Dus-Svapna-Naashanah – He destroys the bad dreams of those who meditate on Him, who praise Him, who recite His prayers and who worship Him, hence He is called Dus-Svapna-Naashanah’. Bad dreams are generally harbingers of bad things to happen and by eliminating such nightmares Bhagavan eliminates the possibility of bad things happening to His devotees. Samsara or the worldly life itself is a bad dream and Bhagavan liberates those from this Samsara who surrender unto Him.

Sri Parasara Bhattar continues with his interpretation in the context of Gajendra Moksham. He explains that those who hear the story of Gajendra Moksham will be relieved of inauspicious dreams. Sri Bhattar has given support from the phala Shruti of the Gajendra Moksham as described in Vishnu Dharma:
ye mam tvam ca sarashcaiva graahasya ca vimoskanam |
ye smarishyanti manujaah prayataah sthirabuddhayah |
dus-svapno nashyate tesham su-svapnashca bhavishyati ||

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj quotes support from Srimad Bhagavatam (8.4.14), where it says that meditating on Lord Krishna and Gajendra Moksham will relieve the devotees from the affliction of bad dreams:
Etan Maharaja taverito maya Krishnanubhavo Gajaraja Mokshanam |
Svargyam yashasyam kali kalmashapaham Dus-Svapna Naashanam kuru varya Shrunivataam ||
Meaning: Suka Maharishi says O’ Parikshit Maharajan! I have narrated to you this great mahima of Lord Krishna that is called the Gajendra Moksham, the hearing of which destroys all sins accrued in this Kali Yuga, bad dreams will be eliminated, and one can attain higher Lokas and achieve fame.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri comments that since Bhagavan ensures that His devotees are not exposed to dangers, they do not get bad dreams. He further comments that by cultivating the habit of constant meditation of Bhagavan’s Nama, one can eliminate any potential occurrence of bad dreams.

Swami ChimayAnanda interprets that the worst dream is that of being re-born. He notes that when one is ever centered in Narayana-smarana, then his subconscious mind is not loaded with half-digested thoughts and unexpressed intentions, repressed desires and suppressed motives, immoral passions and covetous inclinations, and he has no fearful dreams in his sleep. Over time he enters Narayana-consciousness, where there is no room for bad dreams.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives references to Vedic passages where prayer is made for the removal of bad dreams:

  • jaagrad dush-svapnyam svane dush-svapnyam | (Atharva. 16.6.9)
  • punarehi vrishaakape suvita kalpayavahai |
    ya esha svapnanamshano’stameshi patha punar-vishvasmad-indra uttarah || (Rig. 10.86.21)
  1.    Veerahaa – He Who cuts the bonds of Samsara

The word ‘Vee’ stands for ‘different’, ‘Ra’ for paths and ‘Haa’ for destroyer. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as Vividhaah Samsaarinam Gatih Muktipradaanena Hanti iti Veerahaa – He destroys the multiple or varied and aimless paths of people by granting them liberation and hence He is called Veerahaa, the destroyer of varied paths’.

Sri Sankara explains that Bhagavan shows the right path to the Samsaaris and gives them salvation, by guiding them away from following the wrong paths.

Sri Bhattar further explains that ‘One Who removed the strong bonds with Yama for Gajendra’ – Mokshayaamaasa nagendram paashebhyah Saranaagatam (Vishnu Dharma 69). The Nirukti author summarises as ‘Veeram tad-baadhakam mrityum hatavaan Veera-haa matah’.

Sri NammAzhwar describes some of these instances in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (5.3.8):
பேய்முலை யுண்டு சகடம் பாய்ந்து மருதிடைப்
போய்முதல் சாய்த்து, புள்வாய் பிளந்து களிறட்ட,
தூமுறு வல்தொண்டை, வாய்ப்பிரானையெந் நாள்கொலோ,
யாமுறு கின்றது தோழீ! அன்னையர் நாணவே?
Meaning:  He killed Putana by sucking the Milk of her, smote cart, tore the twin marudu trees, ripped the beak of Bakasuran bird, and killed the rutted elephant. He killed them all and then just smiled with His bright pearly teeth showing through the red coral lips in a mild artistic smile that is characteristic of Him whenever He achieves a feat.

Sri Thirumangai Azhwar refers to Him as ‘the Veera beyond all Veeras’ – vem tiraal Veeraril Veerar oppaar (Peria Thirumozhi – 2.8.2).

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha elaborates that it where Vishnu is there is victory and Victory is present where Dharma is present.  A person who has strength, but engages in evil acts or tortures the innocent is called an ‘aparadhi’ or one who has committed an aparadham. Bhagavan destroys these people and eliminates them leaving no trace. Sri Vasishta gives the derivation – viruddha gatin hanti iti Veera-ha. Sri Vasishtha gives another interpretation by using the roots ‘Ir –gatau – to go’, and ‘hamm – gatau – to go’ –  vividham Irati iti Veerahaa – referring to all the different creatures which move in different ways; taansca yo hanti – gamayati – He Who makes it possible for them to go, is Veera-haa – Sarveshaam bahudha iranaam jantunaam gamayita Vishnuh.

Sri Satya Sandha Yatiraja explains using ‘vih – Garudah’ and ‘Irah – Vayuh’ as ‘taabhyaam hanti gacchati iti Veera-ha – Vishnu is called Veera-ha because He goes along with Garuda and Vayu in destroying the Asuras.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj gives the interpretation:  Visheshena Irayanti kshipanti Dharma maargam iti Veerahaa Kamsa Ravana prabhritayah; taan Veeran hanti iti Veera-haa – He destroys those that discard the path of Dharma, such as Kamsa, Ravana etc.

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains Veerahaa as one who provides various or different paths or ways for the passage from birth to death.

The Dharma Chakram writer observes that just as there are those who follow the path of Adharma and are destroyed by Bhagavan, there are the internal enemies in each one us in the form of Kaama, Krodha, Moha, Matsarya and Lobha.  The lesson to take from this Nama is that the chanting and meditation on the mantra derived from this Nama will result in His destroying these internal enemies within us that obstruct us from realising Him.

As people wander in different directions searching for happiness, Bhagavan ultimately gives them liberation or enlightenment, thereby putting an end to their confused and aimless wanderings. Hence, He is called Veerahaa, the terminator of aimless wandering.

  1.    Rakshanah – The Saviour

The word ‘Raksha’ means to protect and Rakshanah is one who protects. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Sattvan Gunam Adhishthaaya Jagat trayam Rakshat Rakshanah – He protects all the three worlds establishing His Sattvic nature (benevolent nature) in the process, hence He is called Rakshanah, the Protector’. Whenever the righteous were in peril, He appeared in His various incarnations and protected them from the evil doers, hence He is rightly known as Rakshanah, the Saviour.

Sri Parasara Bhattar relates the Nama to the protection of Gajendra by Bhagavan – tam sparshana parirambhana SaantvanAdibhih rakshitavaan – Bhagavan saved the elephant by touching it, embracing it, and speaking words in consolation.  Sri Bhattar quotes from Vishnu Dharma in support:
evamuktva maharaja Gajendram Madhusudanah |
sparshayamasa hastena gajam gandharvameva ca ||

Sri NammAzhwar in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (2.2.9) stresses that it is Lord Vishnu’s nature to protect:
காக்குமியல்வினன் கண்ணபெருமான்,
சேர்க்கைசெய்து தன்னுந்தியுள்ளே,
வாய்த்ததிசைமுக னிந்திரன்வானவர்,
ஆக்கினான் தெய்வவுலகுகளே
Meaning: Lord Krishna is the protector of this world.  The Azhwar points out that in addition to offering protection, the Lord performs the functions of destruction and creation through Rudra and Brahma respectively by being their antaryamis (inner soul). He mingled and merged Himself into the Universe.  He made Brahma the creator on his lotus-navel.  He made Indra and the gods, and all the worlds.

Swami ChinmayAnanda reminds us that protection is the reason that Bhagavan keeps taking incarnations by referring to the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 4 Verse 8):
Paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam |
Dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge ||
Meaning: To deliver the righteous and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of Dharma, I advent Myself Millennium after Millennium.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha refers to the Rig Vedic mantra (4.3.14):
Rakshano agne tava rakshanebhi Rakshanah sumukha prinanah |
Pratishphuta viruja vIdvaho jahi raksho mahi cid vaavridhaanam ||
Meaning: O’ Agni! The ever guarding God, keep us safe and protect us with your love and affection. And destroy severe afflictions and demons that become mighty.

  1.    Santah – He Who is righteous and follows Dharma

The word ‘Santah’ refers to the good people and to those who follow the righteous path of Dharma. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama ‘Sanmaargavartinah Santah Tadrupena Vidyavinayavriddhaye sa eva vartate iti Santah – Bhagavan manifests Himself in the form of righteous people for the sake of increasing knowledge and humility, hence He is called Santah, the personification of the righteous people’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as ‘Ashritaan santanoti (samyak tanoti) iti Santah – He blesses those who seek refuge in Him and those who are forever engaged in His thoughts enjoy peace and prosperity’.  Sri Bhattar gives another interpretation as: ‘tesham asti iti Santah’ – He Who exists for His devotees is Santah.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan gives a similar interpretation – ‘evam Gajendram Saranagatam santanoti iti Santah.

This Nama illustrates the Guna of Bhagavan that increases confidence in His devotees and provides reassurance that He will protect without fail. The very sight of Bhagavan during His ceremonial processions around the streets inspires confidence in His devotees.

Sri Velukkudi Krishnan refers us to the Shlokam:
Na te rupam na cakaro nayudhani na caspadam |
Tatha’pi purushakaro bhaktanam prakashase ||
Meaning: Neither Your Divya Atma svarupam, nor Your Divya mangala vigraham, nor for that matter Your Divya Astras, or Your own Sri Vaikuntham, are for Your benefit. They are all for Your devotees’ benefit, and thus You are not independent, but You are the possession of Your devotees). Even so, You shine as the Supreme Being.

The word ‘sam’ is a prefix and the root for the Nama is ‘tanu – vistaare’ meaning to expand or spread.  He Who bestows the desired benefits on His devotees is Santah – tebhyah ishtam dattavaan iti Santah.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives the derivation for the Nama as ‘sampurvaat tanoteh dah vyaaptah’ – He who is present everywhere and permeates everything. This is consistent with the meaning ‘tanu – vistaare’ meaning ‘to spread’.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Samyak tanoti vistaarayati jagat iti Santah’ – He Who expands the world, is Santah.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj uses the root ‘san- sambhaktau’ meaning ‘to worship’, and gives the interpretation – ‘Sanyate Araadhyate sma iti Santah – He Who is worshipped, is Santah’.

  1.    Jivanah – The Life-Giver

‘Jeev’ means to ‘live’ and based on this, Sri Adi Sankara gives the interpretation ‘Sarvaah prajaah Praanaroopena Jeevayan Jivanah – He makes all people live by giving them the vital life breaths or the vitalising airs, hence He is called Jivanah, the Life Giver’.

Clearly no life can exist without oxygen or the air to breathe which is the creation of Bhagavan, hence He is the giver of all life in the Universe.

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is – ‘sva-hastena hananaat graaham api gandharvatvena jivayan – Jivanah – Even though Bhagavan slew the crocodile for its apacaram, He restored the crocodile to its former form as a Gandharva, and so He is JivanaH – the Life-Giver.  Sri Parasara Bhattar gives support from Sri Vishnu Puranam (69):
Sa hi devala Sapena huhuh Gandharava-sattamah |
Graahavatmam agamat Krishnat vadham praapya divam gatah ||
Meaning: The foremost among Gandharvas, Huhuh by name, had become a crocodile by the curse of Sage Devala. Later, when the crocodile met its death at the hands of Krishna, he went back to Svarga. Even though all we superficially note is that Bhagavan slew the crocodile, in fact He restored his life as a Gandharva.

Whatever Bhagavan does, including the slaying of the Rakshasas in His different incarnations, it is truly for the benefit of the Rakshasas who are slayed by Him.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as JIvayati = pranayati jivana upayoga sadhanaih iti Jivanah – He Who sustains life by giving all the means for all the created beings to live is Jivanah’.

Sri NammAzhwar describes Bhagavan as ‘One Whose nature it is to protect – Kaakkum iyalvinan Kanna Peruman (Thiruvai Mozhi 2.2.9)’.

All acts of Bhagavan are directed towards protection of the Jivas. His swallowing the whole Universe with all beings at the time of pralaya, is only for the purpose of protecting them and giving them new bodies in the next cycle of Creation. When a living being meets with ‘death’, it is only a means of removing the old, aged body, and giving the Jiva a new body. Thus, Bhagavan is Life-Giver in His acts of Creation, Protection and Destruction.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan’s interpretation is along the same lines as that of Sri Parasara Bhattar – Graahamapi gandharvatbavena jivati iti Jivanah.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan refers to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thiruviruttam Pasuram 1, where Bhagavan is referred to as Uyir Alippaan – Life Giver’.

Swami ChimayAnanda explains the Nama as ‘One Who is the life-spark in all living creatures’. He gives support from the Srimad Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 15 Verse 13):
Gam avisya ca bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa  |
Pusnami causadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakah ||
Meaning: I enter into each planet, and by My energy they stay in orbit. I become the Moon and thereby nourish all plant life.

  1.    Paryavasthitah – He Who pervades everything

The word ‘Pari’ means ‘all around’ and ‘Avasthita’ refers to ‘being established’. On this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Paritah Sarvatah Vishvam Vyaapya Avasthitah iti Paryavasthitah – He has occupied the Universe all around and has fully established Himself, pervading everything in the space of the Universe, hence He is called Paryavasthitah, One Who is spread all around the Universe’. He is permeating all things inside (Sarvantaryami) and outside (Sarvavyaapi).

Sri Parasara Bhattar’s interpretation is ‘Vaatsalyaat Gajendram pari = paritah, avasthitah iti Paryavasthitah – Out of His Vaatsalyam (affection) to Gajendra, He stood close to Gajendra. He refers us to the Shloka from Vishnu Dharma which praises Bhagavan’s attachment and affection to His devotees – Pritimaan PundarikAkshah Saranagata Vatsalah.

Sri V.V.Ramanujan refers us to Sri NammAzhwar’s Thirvai Mozhi Pasuram (10.10.1) where the Azhwar points to this Guna of Bhagavan:
முனியே. நான்முக னே.முக்கண் ணப்பா என் பொல்லாக்
கனிவாய்த் தாமரைக் கண் கரு மாணிக்கமே. என்கள்வா
தனியேன் ஆருயிரே. என் தலை மிசையாய் வந்திட்டு
இனிநான் போகலொட் டேன் ஒன்றும் மாயம் செய்யேல் என்னையே
Meaning: O Bard, my coral-lipped Lord of Lotus eyes, my black uncut Gem! The soul of Brahma, Siva and this forlorn self! At last you have come to me.  Now I shall not let you go, pray do not play your tricks again.

Also in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (8.3.6), the Azhwar says ‘tiru nila maniyaar meniyodu en manam Suzha varuvaare – Bhagavan, with His cool bluish gem-like hue, comes to His devotees and completely occupies their mind’.

In the whole of Thiruvai Mozhi 1.9, the Azhwar describes how Bhagavan enjoys His devotees and pervades them and floods them gradually, and how all the indriyas of the devotees are ultimately permeated by Him without interruption, and dedicated to His thought permanently.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri refers us to the following from Narayana Suktam:
Yacca kincijjagatsarvaṁ drishyate shruyate’pi va |
antarbahishca tatsarvam vyapya Narayanah sthitah ||
Meaning: Whatever is in this Universe that is seen or heard of—pervading all this, from inside and outside alike, stands Supreme, the Eternal Divine Being Narayana.

The act of permeation of Bhagavan as our antaryami in all of us, is a result of His concern for the Jivas, to ensure that He is always with the Jiva to help him in whatever he undertakes.

Sri Krishnan enjoys the Nama with his explanation that Bhagavan went round and round Gajendra, to find out all the places where he might have suffered injury in his encounter with the crocodile, so that He can comfort the elephant as needed, and so He is called Paryavasthitah.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan also explains the Nama in terms of Bhagavan being close to Gajendra with Vatsalyam – Vatsalya bharena Gajendrasya paritah sthitatvaat Paryavasthitah.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj enjoys another aspect of Bhagavan’s Guna – His extreme concern to His devotee, and His ever being ready to protect the devotee from any harm. He interprets as ‘Parito bhaktam avasthitah tasya rakshaayai iti Paryavasthitah. He gives support from Srimad Bhagavatam (1.12.9, 10), where it describes how Bhagavan protected Parikshit in his mother’s womb by surrounding the yet-to-be-born child from the Brahmastra of Ashvatthama:
Kshatajaksham gadapanim Atmanah sarvato disham |
Paribhramantam ulkabham bhramayantam gadam muhuh ||(SB 1.12.9)
Astra tejah sva-gadaya nIharamiva gopatih |
Vidhamantam sannikarshe paryaikshata ka ityasau ||(SB 1.12.10)
Meaning: Bhagavan with angry red eyes was moving around like wind in all directions around the yet-to-be-born child, whirling the Gadha in His hand that was shining like a burning firewood, and destroying the Tejas of the BrahmAstram with His Gadha like the Sun that removes the dew. The child wondered aloud who this Purusha was, who had suddenly appeared by his side.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates the base root for the Nama as ‘stha – gati nivrittau’ meaning ‘to stand, to wait, to be at hand’ etc. and Pari is a prefix which means ’round, round about’ etc. Sri Vasishtha gives the interpretation ‘paritah sarvata Urdhvat adhah, tiryak ca avasthitah – sarva-vyapaka iti Paryavasthitah’ – He has pervaded all things and hence He is called Paryavasthitah.

In Summary

Uttaarano Dushkritiha Punyo DuSvapnaNaashanah   |
Veerahaa Rakshanah Santo Jivanah Paryavasthitah ||99||

He enables people to cross over the Samsara Sagara or the suffering of the worldly life, hence He is called Uttaaranah. He destroys the Sins arising out of evil acts, hence He is called Dushkritiha – the Destroyer of Sins. He creates auspicious effects for those who worship Him by techniques such as meditation, prayer, recitation of Namas etc. and hence He is called Punyah, the bestower of auspicious results. He destroys the bad dreams of those who meditate on Him, who praise Him, who recite His prayers and who worship Him, hence He is called Dus-Svapna-Naashanah.

He destroys the multiple or varied and aimless paths of people by granting them liberation and hence He is called Veerahaa, the destroyer of varied paths. He protects all the three worlds establishing His Sattvic nature (benevolent nature) in the process, hence He is called Rakshanah, the Protector. Bhagavan manifests Himself in the form of righteous people for the sake of increasing knowledge and humility, hence He is called Santah, the personification of righteous people. He makes all people live by giving them the vital life giving breath or the vitalising air, hence He is called Jivanah, the Life Giver. He has occupied the Universe all around and has fully established Himself, pervading everything in the space of the Universe, hence He is called Paryavasthitah, One Who is spread all around the Universe.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.

SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 98) – PART 107

SRI VISHNU SAHASRANAMAM (SHLOKA 98) – PART 107

In this part we will explore the meaning of the 98th Shloka of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.


Akrurah Peshalo Daksho Dakshinah Kshaminaam Varah |
Vidvattamo Vitabhayah PunyashravanaKeertanah     ||98||

Purport
He is completely devoid of anger and consequently He is free from cruel thought at all times. He is charming and like-able in His thoughts, deeds and speech as well as in His physical appearance. He is immense, powerful and swift while being very kind, compassionate and affectionate towards His devotees. He is the foremost among those who are endowed with patience and endurance and has an extraordinary knowledge of everything, hence He is the greatest of all scholars. He is completely devoid of fear coming either from worldly life or from fear of worldly life as He is the Lord of all.  Hearing and/or reciting His Nama results in accretion of Punya or store of auspicious deeds.

The above Shloka has the following Namas:

  1.    Akrurah
  2.    Peshalah
  3.    Dakshah
  4.    Dakshinah
  5.    Kshaminaam Varah
  6.    Vidvattamah
  7.    Vitabhayah
  8.    PunyashravanaKeertanah

Now let’s examine the meaning of the above Namas in detail:

  1.    Akrurah – He is Merciful

The word ‘Krura’ means cruel and hence Akrurah denotes someone who is merciful. Sri Adi Sankara interprets this in detail as ‘Krauryam Nama manodharmah Prakopajah Aantarah santaapah Saabhiniveshah AvaaptaSamastaKaamatvaat Kaamaabhavaat eva Kopaabhaavah Tasmaat Krauryam asya naasti iti Akrurah – Cruelty springs from the mental state of anger; Anger itself comes because of unfulfilled desires.  Since Bhagavan is totally free from unfulfilled desires, He is completely devoid of anger and consequently He is also free from cruel thought at all times and hence He is called Akrurah, the one not touched by cruelty’.

The best example of His disposition of ‘not being cruel’ is His treatment of Ravana during the battle with him. When Ravana was all but defeated, and Rama could have finished him with one more arrow, He told Ravana to go back home, and come back refreshed to fight the next day to continue the battle. Given the nature of the sin that Ravana had committed, the strength of the enemy, and the deceitful means that he employed in the battle, none but the kindest at heart would give ‘time to rethink and recuperate’ for the enemy.

In the Gajendra Moksham, when the crocodile refused to let go of Gajendra, He did not kill it with cruelty, but did it in an instant by splitting it into two, so that it did not suffer for a prolonged time in the process.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives the following support:
Graahagrstam Gajendram ca tam graaham ca jalaashayaat |
ujjahaara AprameyAtma tarasa Madhusudanah ||
Meaning: Madhusudana, the Lord of inscrutable nature, quickly took out not only the elephant which had been seized by the crocodile, but lifted the crocodile also from the waters of the pond.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri notes that the anger that Bhagavan had while slaying Hiranyakashipu was ‘made up’ and not natural, hence the moment the Lord saw Prahlada, His disposition immediately changed to love from anger. Thus, by nature, Bhagavan is Akrurah.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha indicates that the root from which the Nama is derived is ‘krit –chedane’ meaning ‘to cut or to divide’. The affix rak comes after the root krit, the verb itself replaced by kru, leading to krurah meaning wicked or cruel, and as Bhagavan is not cruel, He is Akrurah.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan adds another incident to illustrate that Bhagavan is, by nature, forgiving. He cites the Durvasa episode, where the sage harassed the Pandavas by demanding feast for a large battalion of his disciples after draupadi had washed her ‘akshaya-patra’ for the day. In spite of this harassment to His dear devotees, Lord Krishna did not harm him because, by His nature, He is Akrura – Pandava klesha kaarakam Durvasasam na kritavaan iti Akrurah.

The Story of Akshayapatra

During the Pandavas’ exile, Durvasa and several disciples arrived at Hastinapura. Duryodhana with his maternal uncle Shakuni managed to gratify the Sage. Sage Durvasa was pleased enough to grant him a boon. Duryodhana, secretly wanting Sage Durvasa to curse the Pandavas in anger, asked the Sage to visit his cousins in the forest at a certain time knowing that Draupadi would have eaten her meal, and the Pandavas would be left with nothing to feed him.  Sage Durvasa and his disciples visited the Pandavas in their hermitage in the forest, as per Duryodhana’s request.

During their period of exile, the Pandavas would obtain their food by means of the Akshaya Patra, which would become exhausted each day once Draupadi finished her meal. Because Draupadi had already eaten by the time Sage Durvasa and his disciples arrived that day, there was no food left to serve them, and the Pandavas were very anxious as to their fate should they fail to feed such a venerable sage.

While Sage Durvasa and his disciples were away bathing at the river, Draupadi prayed to Krishna for His help. Krishna immediately appeared before Draupadi saying he was extremely hungry, and asked her for food. Draupadi grew exasperated and said she had prayed to Krishna precisely because she had no food left to give. Krishna asked her to bring the Akshaya Patra to him. When she did, he took the lone grain of rice and piece of vegetable that he found stuck to the vessel and announced that he was satisfied by the “meal”. This satiated the hunger of Sage Durvasa and his disciples, as the satisfaction of Krishna (portrayed here as the Supreme Being who pervades the entire universe) meant the satiation of the hunger of all living things. Sage Durvasa and his disciples then quietly left after their bath, without returning to the Pandavas’ hermitage, for they were afraid of facing what they thought would be the Pandavas’ wrathful reaction at their impolite behaviour of refusing the food that would be served to them!  The Lord showed His immense compassion by rushing to the aid of Draupadi at her distress call.

Jai Shri Krishna!

  1.    Peshalah – He Who is Charming

Peshala refers to the quality of being charming, soft and likeable and Peshalah is someone who is having this quality abundantly both physically and in action. Based on this basis, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this as ‘Karmana Manasa Vaachaa Vapushaa cha Shobhanatvaat Peshalah – He is charming and like-able in His thoughts, deeds and speech as well as in His physical appearance, hence He is called Peshalah, the charming one’. This Nama is a summary of His total personality in a nutshell. In every single aspect He is affable, charming and handsome.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains the Nama as One Who was charming at the time of Gajendra Moksha, even with all His ornaments in disarray because of the hurry in which He left Sri Vaikuntham to rescue Gajendra – sambhramaat ayathaayatha srag-bhushambara ramaniyah – Peshalah.

Sri NammAzhwar explains Gajendra Moksham in his Thiruvai Mozhi Pasuram (3.5.1):
மொய்ம்மாம் பூம்பொழில் பொய்கை முதலைச் சிறைப்பட்டு நின்ற,
கைம்மா வுக்கருள் செய்த கார்முகில் போல்வண்ணன் கண்ணன்,
எம்மா னைச்சொல்லிப் பாடி எழுந்தும் பறந்தும்துள் ளாதார்,
தம்மால் கருமமென் சொல்லீர் தண்கடல் வட்டத்துள் ளீரே.
Meaning: Pray tell, O People of the Ocean-girdled Earth!  What good are they those who cannot sing and dance in joy, the glories of the dark hued Lord who saved the elephant from the jaws of the crocodile in the lotus tank?

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri comments that the Nama indicates ‘One with a soft heart, like a flower’. He is One who is full of kindness and compassion, and this reflects in all His thoughts, words and deeds.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha uses the meaning ‘pish – avayave’ meaning ‘to form’, and interprets the Nama as signifying that Bhagavan is One Who has formed or separated every major form in His creation (such as our human body) into its several parts – pimshati – avayavam karoti it PeshalaH. He also gives examples of the Nakshatra Mandalam being separated into individual stars, time being separated into its subdivisions, etc.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha gives an alternate interpretation by looking at the Nama as pa + isa + la: Isham = rudram, laati = bhaktatvena grihnati, iti Ishlah; pati iti pah; pashca asau Ishalashca iti Peshalah – He Who has Rudra who is devoted to Him, and He Who protects him, is Peshalah.

Swami ChimayAnanda comments that the Lord has Infinite kindness and Mercy, His Heart is divine and is ever flowing in love and tenderness towards His devotees and is everready to help when they call out for Him and lifts them from their body consciousness and egocentric life of sense-pursuits.

  1.    Dakshah – He Who is Powerful and appears in an instant

The Nama Dakshah has several meanings:

  1. He Who removes evil elements very quickly (Daksh – SIghrArthe)
  2. He Who came to the rescue of Gajendra in a flash (Daksh – SIghrArthe)
  3. He Who grows into, or manifests Himself as the Universe (Daksh – to grow)
  4. He Who is deft in His creation, sustenance and destruction (Daksha –dexterous)
  5. He Who destroys His enemies (Daksh – himsanayoh)

Daksha can denote any one of 3 different qualities namely immensity, strength and quick action. Since Bhagavan has all three of these, He is appropriately called Dakshah. Sri Adi Sankara explains as ‘Pravriddhah, Shaktah, Sheeghrakaari cha Dakshah, Trayam cha etat Parasmin Niyatam iti Dakshah – He is immense, powerful and swift, so He is called Dakshah’.

Sri Sankara gives another interpretation – jagad-rupen vardhamanatvat Dakshah – He Who grows into, or manifests Himself as, the Universe.

Sri Sankara also interprets this as ‘Sarva karmani kshipram karoti va Dakshah – He Who performs all actions fast’. The term ‘Sankalapa matrena’ is used extensively in describing this Guna of Bhagavan – All He has to do is to ‘will’, and the action will be done.

Sri Parasara Bhattar, in his explanation for the Nama Shishirah, has referred to Bhagavan’s speed by reaching in an instant to rescue Gajendra. For the current Nama, Sri Bhattar explains Bhagavan as ‘One Who is skilled and who has the power to arrive very fast’ based on ‘Daksha – Saamarthya shaali’ or ‘Shakti-shali’.  Sri Bhattar says ‘kshipram Aganta Dakshah’, referring to Bhagavan’s ‘speedy arrival’ (kshipram Aganta) again.

Sri Parasara Bhattar also explains how Bhagavan will get rid of the evil elements very quickly in his Kalki incarnation (dasyu-vadhe dakshate – Shighra-karI iti dakshah).

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan also gives his interpretation in terms of Bhagavan’s speed in responding to His devotees’ distress call when He is meditated upon – smrita matrah tvaraya gatavan iti Dakshah.

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj also echoes the idea of the speed with which Bhagavan rushes to the protection of His devotee – dakshate = Shighratam kurute svajana avane iti Dakshah.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri explains that He is deft in creation, and this is indicated by this Nama.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha derives the Nama from the root ‘Daksh – vriddhau Shighrarthe ca’ meaning ‘to grow, to go in speed’.  Sri Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Pravriddhah, Shaktah, Shighrakari ca’ – One Who has the power (Shakti), and One Who achieves things fast (Sighra-kari).

Swami ChinmayAnanda explains Dakshah as ‘One Who undertakes creation, sustenance, and destruction of the whole Cosmos with ease and efficiency, diligence, and promptitude.

Sri Satya Sandha Thirtha explains this as ‘Shatrunam hanta Dakshah – He Who destroys His enemies’. This interpretation uses the meaning – ‘Daksh – himsanayoh’ meaning ‘to hurt’.

  1.    Dakshinah – He Who is very kind, compassionate and affectionate

Sri Adi Sankara gives two meanings for this Nama. The first meaning is the same as for Dakshah namely one who is endowed with immensity, prowess and swiftness in action. Sri Sankara says ‘Dakshina Shabdasyaapi Daksha eve arthah; Punaruktidosho naasti Shabdabhedaat – Dakshinah has the same meaning as Dakshah, and there is no flaw of repetition because Daksha and Dakshina are two different words and hence two distinctly different Namas albeit with same meaning’.

The second meaning is based on the grammatical rule which says ‘Daksha Gati Himsanayoh – Daksha is a root signifying either go or destroy’. On this basis, Sri Sankara interprets this as ‘Athavaa Dakshate Gacchati Hinasti iti vaa Dakshinah- He moves around or He destroys, hence He is called Dakshinah’. The first one refers to Him being omnipresent, while the second refers to His role as the destroyer at the time of the Pralaya (Dissolution).

The Siddhanta kaumudi gives the following meanings for the word Dakshinah – dakshate vardhate Shighrakari bhavati va sa Dakshinah; saralo vamabhagaH paratantro’nuvartanam meaning right, honest, courteous, and submissive.

As explained above, the term ‘Dakshina’ has the same meaning as the term ‘Daksha’ meaning ‘dexterous, skillful, one who arrives fast, one who accomplishes things fast’, etc., but additionally, it means ‘pleasing, amiable, courteous, civil’, etc. Thus, the word ‘Dakshina’ means ‘One who is fast, One who destroys, One who is courteous, One who grows His devotees, One who is compassionate’, etc.

Sri Parasara Bhattar uses the meaning ‘courteous and compassionate’ for the word ‘Dakshina’, and comments that even though Bhagavan responded immediately to the cry for help from Gajendra, He still expressed regret to Gajendra that He was not close enough and consoled Gajendra with kind words – ‘thatha Agatya, ‘dhing maam, duragato’ham tvam’, iti santvanaih, Gajendrasya anukulah Dakshinah’.  He gives support from the Vishnu Dharma:
Pritiman pundarikAkshah Saranagata vatsalah |
bhajantam Gajarajanam madhuram Madhu-sudanah ||
Meaning: The Lotus-eyed Slayer of Madhu, Who is kind and affectionate to those who have surrendered to Him, showed His love to Gajendra, who worshiped Him.

The word ‘santvanam’ that has been used by Sri Bhattar means ‘consolation, pacification’.

This was also the case in Vibhishana Saranagati. ‘vacasa santvayitvainam locanAbhyam pibanniva’ – Yuddha Kandam 19.7 – ‘Lord Rama uttered words of consolation to Vibhishana, and blessed him with His kataksham, as if He drank Vibhishana through His eyes’.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan explains the Nama as referring to His Dakshinyam – politeness, civility and courtesy. For Sarveshvaran to express regret to a mere animal, is a clear expression of His Guna of Saushilyam.

Sri Krishnan graphically describes that Bhagavan knelt at the feet of the elephant, checked for the injuries, took out His uttariyam – the vastram at the top of His divya tirumeni, blew at it to get some heat, and then applied the heat to the elephant’s leg to give comfort to the elephant’s wound. In addition, He expressed regret for not having come earlier. This Nama thus illustrates that Bhagavan is Saranagata-vatsalan – One Who is dearly attached to those who surrender unto Him.

Using the meaning ‘to kill’ or ‘destroy’ for the root ‘Daksh’, Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan gives the example of Lord Krishna preventing the rise of Duryodhana – damshati duryodhana udyamam iti Dakshinah.

Swami ChinmayAnanda interprets the Nama in terms of Daakshinya meaning liberal-hearted – the opposite of selfishness and attachment to wealth one possesses. He sums up the meaning of the Nama as ‘One Who has Infinite Kindness and Charity towards all good people and One Who is thus ever ready to liberally give away His endless benevolence’. He gives the example of the offering of ‘Dakshina’ to the priests after a ritual as their fee – this should be given in a spirit of large-hearted, liberal charity. Recall the Nama Svastidakshinah (Nama 905 in Shloka 96), which was interpreted along these lines.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha comments that Bhagavan arrives fast if one calls Him for help, and is pleasant once He arrives – kshipram Agacchati Ahuta, Agatya ca santushto mukta-hastam dadati iti udaraH sa Dakshina ucyate.

Sri Krishna datta Bharadvaj uses the root ‘daksh –vardhate’ meaning ‘to grow’, and interprets the Nama as – dakshayati vardhayati svajanaan iti Dakshinah – He Who helps His devotees grow is Dakshinah.  An alternate interpretation by Sri Bharadvaj is – ata eva vishvarange udaratamo nayakah – Bhagavan is the most compassionate Lord of all. Dakshihah is explained as ‘sarala, udarau ca’ – honest, sincere, generous and compassionate.

  1.    Kshaminaam-varah – The foremost in bearing the burden of protection of His devotees

The root word for the Nama is ‘ksham – sahane’ meaning ‘to allow, to suffer’ and vara is derived from ‘vrin – varane’ meaning ‘to choose’.  Thus, ‘Kshaminaam varah’ refers to ‘One Who is superior among those who are endowed with patience and endurance’.

Sri Adi Sankara gives several interpretations for this Nama. The first is based on Kshami denoting a yogi. It is ‘Kshamaavataam yoginaam Varah Shreshthah iti Kshaminaam Varah – He is the foremost among Yogis hence He is called Kshaminaam Varah’.

The second interpretation is based on ‘Kshami’ denoting a load bearer. It is ‘Prithivyadinam Bharadharakanam Shreshtha iti Kshaminaam Varah – He is superior to the other load bearers such as the Earth hence He is called Kshaminaam Varah’. Sri Adi Sankara goes on to quote from Valmiki Ramayanam (1.1.18) which says ‘Kshamya Prithvisamah – Rama is earth-like in patience’.

His next interpretation is ‘Brahmandam akhilam vahan Prithiviva bharena naardita iti Prithivya api varo vaa – Though He carries the whole Universe, He is not afflicted by this load like the Earth and hence He is superior to Earth, therefore He is Kshaminaam Varah – superior to other load bearers like the Earth’.

The last interpretation is ‘Kshaminah Shaktaah Ayam tu Sarvashaktimattvaat Sakalaah kriyaah kartum kshamate iti vaa Kshaminaam varah – Kshami is a capable person; Bhagavan is possessed of all powers and so He is capable of doing any task, hence He is called Kshaminaam Varah, the one with the best capabilities’.

Sri Parasara Bhattar explains as – ‘tad-darshanena dhritAtma; abhavat tatra deveshah – It was only after ensuring Gajendra’s safe that He felt relieved; The Lord of all Devas stood as though revived (after securing Gajendra’s safety). This signifies that Bhagavan was throbbing with anxiety on behalf of His devotee and patiently putting up with this anxiety for the short duration between Gajendra’s call and His rescue. His desire to protect His devotee is so extreme and intense, and the seriousness with which He takes His commitment to protect His devotee is extolled by Sri Bhattar. Bhagavan is the foremost in bearing the burden of protection of His devotee, hence He is aptly called Kshaminaam varah.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha explains the Nama as ‘Sahana Shilayaam, kshmavataam madhye varah = Shreshtha ityarthah’ – He is able and competent in addition to His qualities of forbearance and patience.

Swami ChinmayAnanda’s interpretation is that Bhagavan is the most patient when it comes to tolerating and forgiving the sins of the Jivas. His words are: ‘He exhibits supreme patience with the evil-minded, the tyrant, the foul and the fiendish. Asuras such as HiranyAksha, Hiranyakashipu, Ravana, and others were given many opportunities to realise for themselves the folly of their baser attitudes and their Adharmic ways of life. It is only when no other method of treatment could cure them that the Lord destroyed them in His Infinite kindness (they all reached parama padam as a result of having His darshan).

Sri Krishna Datta Bharadvaj brings about another dimension of Bhagavan’s forbearance explaining that it is His willingness to forgive the sins of His devotees that makes Him Kshaminaamvarah – ‘kshamitum sodhum bhakta aparadhaan Seelam yesham te Kshaminah; tesham varah uttama iti Kshaminaam varah’.

Bhagavan subjected Himself to innumerable sufferings in His Rama Avataar. The whole Ramayana is a demonstration of Him being Kshaminaam varah, along with Sita Piratti, who is in all respects equal to Him. The incident where Sage Bhrigu kicks Bhagavan in His vaksha sthalam, and the composed reaction of Bhagavan to this incident, is another example of His most superior Kshama or endurance and forbearance.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan gives another example from Lord Krishna’s incarnation: – the magnanimity with which Bhagavan forgave Sage Durvasa for his ignoble act of harassing the Pandavas on behalf of Duryodhana during their exile. The KakAsura incident shows His kindness where Sita Piratti positions the evil asura such that his head was facing Lord Rama’s feet so that Lord Rama will forgive the Asura, and Bhagavan forgiving the Asrua by just punishing him very mildly instead of killing him as he justly deserved, is an example of both Bhagavan and Piratti match each other in their Kshama, or willingness to forgive and put up with aparadhas of their children.

Sri NammAzhwar repeatedly reminds us that not even Brahma, who is gifted with superior knowledge by Bhagavan Himself, will be able to describe Bhagavan’s Kalyana Gunas or do justice to even one of His Gunas.

  1.    Vidvat-tamah -The Best among those who know what to do

The word ‘Vidvat’ refers to scholarship and the suffix ‘Tamah’ denotes the superlative degree, so Vidvat-tamah means the greatest scholar. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Nirasta Atishayam Jnaanam Sarvadaa Sarvagocharam asya asti na itareshaam iti Vidvattamah – He has an extraordinary knowledge of everything which no one else has, hence He is called Vidvattamah – the greatest of all scholars’.

Bhagavan has the complete knowledge of all things in the Universe, being the Creator and the Cause of All beings.  All the others have only a partial or imperfect knowledge, hence He is Vidvattamah, the topmost scholar.

Sri Parasara Bhattar interprets the Nama in terms of the Gajendra Moksham, and points out that the Nama reminds us that Bhagavan knew exactly how to administer the treatment to Gajendra as soon as He arrived at the scene – taccikitsaayaam vidvat-tamah – Bhagavan gently touched the elephant, and started speaking to the elephant comfortingly. Gajendra’s intense devotion to Bhagavan was the reason for him to go to the pond to pluck the Lotus flower for offering it to Him. The pain vanished instantly and nothing seemed important to Gajendra than Bhagavan’s Darshan, and all his ailments were cured right away.

Sri Parasara Bhattar gives support from the Vishnu Dharma:
evamuktva kurushreshtha! Gajendram MadhusudanaH |
sparsayamasa hastena.. . . .
Meaning: The Bliss from the touch of Bhagavan’s hands eliminates all misery, and is like the herb that can cure any ailment. His divine hands were the medicine for Gajendra, and the warmth from His beautiful red lips were the comfort that Gajendra would do anything to have.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan explains the Nama with the comment that Bhagavan is the ‘greatest Doctor there ever was and is, – the way He administered the most appropriate cikitsa or treatment to Gajendra, (who had suffered for a thousand years in the clutches of the crocodile)’. Bhagavan knew precisely what would give Gajendra the greatest comfort, and so He is called Vidvat-tamah.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan also interprets the Nama based on the Gajendra episode – Atha Gajendra uddharakatam sucayan Aha – svaika Saranyasya Gajendrasya vipad vinaashe ati-nipunatvaat Vidvat-tamah – He Who dealt with the surrender of Gajendra in the most skillful manner.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri explains the Nama as ‘Bhagavan is the One Who knows how to remedy the Devotees’ problems.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha gives the following derivation for the Nama – Vidanti iti vidvamso jnaninah teshu atishayena Shreshthah sarvajnatvaat iti Vidvattamo Vishnuh – He Who is the best among those endowed with knowledge – the All-Knowing. He from Whom all knowledge originated, He Who gave the Vedas to the world, etc., is Vidvat-tamah. This cannot be said of anyone else. This is how the Vedas praise Him.

  1.     Vita-bhayah – He Who is Devoid of Fear

The word ‘Vita’ means ‘removed or got rid of’ and ‘Bhaya’ means ‘fear or fright’. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara interprets this Nama as ‘Vitam vigatam bhayam Saamsarikam samsaralakshanam vaa asya iti Vitabhayah Sarveshvaratvaat Nityamuktatvaat cha – He is completely devoid of fear coming from worldly life or fear of worldly life as He is the Lord of all or He is fully liberated from all things; hence He is called Vitabhayah, one who knows no fear’.

Basically there are two types of fears associated with Samsara or the worldly life’. The first is the various day to day fears such as the fear of poverty, disease, old age and fear of death. The second is the fear of rebirth and having another Samsara all over again. Bhagavan is completely free of both these fears as He is the ultimate master who is liberated from all these afflictions, constraints and limiting conditions.

Sri Parasara Bhattar emphasises on the Guna of Bhagavan as One whose sole purpose is to help His devotees and explains that He has this Nama since He drives away the fear in His devotees – vitam bhayam yasmat sa VIta-bhayah. Sri Bhattar’s interpretation is: tat-samagama tumula upalambhat vItam bhayam Gajendrasya iti Vita-bhayah – Seeing the ardent zeal of the Lord in coming to his help, the fear of Gajendra vanished. Thus, Bhagavan has this Nama since He is the ‘One Who dispelled the fear of Gajendra by arriving promptly to his distress call’.

Sri V.V. Ramanujan comments that Gajendra had called for help from Lord Narayana, and was afraid that Bhagavan’s Guna of Ashrita rakshanam might be questioned by some if He did not come right away, and it was this fear that was removed as soon as Bhagavan arrived.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan echoes the same thoughts as above – VItam = vinashtam Gajendrasya grahat bhayam yena sa Vita-bhayah – He Who relieved Gajendra of the fear of being gripped by the crocodile, is VItabhayah.

Sri Radhakrishna Shastri comments that the worst of all fears is the fear of Samsara, or being born in this world again; since Bhagavan is beyond this, He is Fearless, and beyond fear – Vita-bhayah.

Sri Satya Sandha thirtha also gives the explanation along the same lines – Bhaya Shunyah Vita bhayah – One Who is without fear. 

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha derives the meaning ‘One Who has no fear’ – Vi = visheshena, itam = gatam, bhayam = bhitih yasya iti Vita-bhayah – One Who is totally devoid of fear.

  1.    Punya-Shravana-kirtanah – He Whose Nama Shravanam and kirtanam are purifying

Punya is an act of bliss or sanctified deed.  ‘Shravana’ is ‘hearing’ and ‘Kirtana’ is ‘reciting or singing’ aloud. Both hearing and reciting about His glory adds to one’s stock of auspicious deeds. Based on this, Sri Adi Sankara says ‘Punyam Punyakaram Shravanam Keertanam Cha asya iti PunyashravanaKirtanah – Hearing and/or reciting His Nama results in accretion of Punya or store of auspicious deeds, hence He is called Punya-Shravana-Kirtanah’.

Punya here refers to ‘that which purifies’ – pavate, puyate va anena iti Punyam. Shravana refers to hearing from others, and Kirtana refers to our own chanting. The Nama says that Bhagavan’s glory is such that by hearing it from others, or by singing His glory ourselves, we will be purified.

Punyam = pavitrikraranam, namnam Shravanam Kirtanam ca yasya sa Punya-Shravana-kirtanah Vishnuh.  One by hearing whose names, and by chanting whose names, we get purified, is called ‘Punya-Shravana- Kirtanah’ – yasya Vishnor-nam nam anyatah Shravanam, tatha sva-mukhata uccarya kirtanam, ityubhayata pavitrikaranam bhavati, sa etan-namnam abhidhiyate.

Sri Parasara Bhattar continues his interpretation of the Nama as it relates to Gajendra moksham, and explains the Nama as: “He by hearing whose gajendra moksham episode, or by narrating it ourselves, we get purified”. This is one example of the purifying power of singing His glory or hearing His glory.

Sri Parasara Bhattar refers us to a Shloka from Vishnu Dharma in support:
Shrutena hi kuru-Shreshtha! Smritena kathitena va |
Gajendra mokshenaiva sadyah Paapaat vimucyate ||
Meaning: O’ the best of Kurus! A person is immediately rid of his sins if he hears, thinks or talks about the story of Gajendra Moksham.

Srimad Srimushnam Andavan points out that Bhagavan is Punya Shravana Kirtanah also because He has thee Kirtanas (fame) that is worthy of being heard (Shravana), and that will remove all our sins. He reminds us that this is the reason why we do the anusandhanam of the following Shlokam on Gajendra Moksham every morning as we get up:
graaham graste Gajendre sarabhasam taarkshaym Aruhya dhaavan
vyaaghurnan maalya bhusha vasan parikaro megha gambhira ghoshah |
vibhraano rathanngam Saram asim abhayam Sankha capau ca
khetau hastaih kaumodakim api avatu harirasaavamhaaam samhaternah||
Meaning: The Shloka reminds us how Bhagavan rushed to the scene of Gajendra’s suffering, climbing on to the Garuda’s back in a big rush, with disheveled ornaments in his hurry, with the roaring sound of His arrival clearly noticeable, and with all His weapons ready for the protection of the devotee. The anusandhanam (thinking with the meaning in our mind) of this act of Bhagavan will protect all those who meditate on it, chant it, or hear it from others.

Sri Baladeva Vidya Bhushan echoes the same – Papahari Gajendra-sambandhi-ShravanAditvaat Punya-Shravana-Kirtanah.

Both Sri Sankara and Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha give reference to the phala Shruti Shlokam of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam which conveys the same message that is conveyed by this Nama:
Ya idam Shrunuyan-nityam yashcapi parikirtayet |
nashubham prapnuyat kincit somutreha ca manavah ||
Meaning: Nothing inauspicious or unwelcome will accrue either in this world or in the world beyond, to anyone who hears the Vishnu Sahasranamam stotram daily, or one who recites it daily.

Swami ChinmayAnanda comments that ‘kirtana’ should not be just interpreted to mean mechanical repetition, but the serious student should reflect upon the glories of the Lord. We must learn to get ourselves committed to the life of spiritual activities. It is not to be a mere noisy chanting of hymns, a mere muttering of mantras. We must teach ourselves to allow Him to express through us. Our physical activities, mental feelings, and intellectual thoughts must all shine forth the awareness of His Divine Presence that is in us at every moment, everywhere. The life of such a devotee will itself become, in its dynamic beauty, love and devoted tenderness, a constant worship (pooja), a continuous (akhanda) hymn chanted (kirtana) in praise of the Lord-of-the-heart.

Sri Satyadevo Vasishtha summarises the meaning of this Nama through the following composition of his own:
Yasyasti namnam Shravanam pavitram, sankirtanam capyamalam hi tasya |
So’nanta Nama Bhagavan hi Vishnuh, sva-Namabhir vishvamidam punati ||
Meaning: Lord Vishnu, whose Namas are purifying to those who hear them or chant them – this Lord Vishnu with His infinite Namas (representing His infinite Kalyana Gunas), purifies this whole Universe through His Namas.

In Summary
Akrurah Peshalo Daksho Dakshinah KshaminaamVarah |
Vidvattamo Vitabhayah PunyashravanaKeertanah        ||98|| 

He is completely devoid of anger and consequently He is free from cruel thought at all times, hence He is called Akrurah. He is charming and likeable in His deeds, in His mind, in His speech and in His physical appearance, hence He is called Peshalah, the charming one’. He is immense, powerful and swift, so He is called Dakshah’. He is very kind, compassionate and affectionate towards His devotees and hence He is known as Dakshinah.  He is the foremost among those who are endowed with patience and endurance, so He is called KshaminaamVarah.

He has an extraordinary knowledge of everything, hence He is called Vidvattamah – the greatest of all scholars. He is completely devoid of fear coming from worldly life or fear of worldly life as He is the Lord of all. He is fully liberated from all things, hence He is called Vitabhayah, one who knows no fear. Hearing and/or reciting His Nama results in accretion of Punya or store of auspicious deeds, hence He is called Punya-Shravana-Kirtanah’.

OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA

HARI OM TAT SAT

This Vishnu Sahasranamam series is authored with the help of my friend Shri Balaji.