Swami Desikan composed 10 verses on “Saranagati” (absolute surrender) in his “Adaikkala Patthu” wherein he seeks refuge of Lord Varadarajar of Kancheepuram for Moksha (Liberation). Swami Desikan has also composed ‘Nyasa Dasakam’ in Sanskrit which has a similar set of Shlokas for Saranagati.
Before we delve into the meanings of Adaikkala Patthu or the approach to Saranagati, let’s understand the rationale of our Acharyas preferring Saranagati as a means to attain Moksha as opposed to the Jnana Marga or the Bhakti Marga as detailed in the Bhagavad Gita, both of which were available to them. In the Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 12 Verse 1) Arjuna asks Bhagavan Sri Krishna this very question, which is seeking Bhagavan’s view on Jnana Marga and Bhakti Marga:
Evam satata-yukta ye bhaktas tvam paryupasate
Ye capy aksaram avyaktam tesam ke yoga-vittamah ||12.1||
Meaning: Arjuna asks: Which is considered to be more perfect, those who are properly engaged in Your devotional service, or those who worship the impersonal Brahman, the unmanifested?
Bhagavan Sri Krishna, true to his nature, does not give a straight answer but instead lays out the paths to ‘Realisation’ and the rigour required for each of these paths.
Sri Bhagavan Uvaca:
mayy avesya mano ye mam nitya-yukta upasate
sraddhaya parayopetas te me yuktatama matah ||12.2||
ye tv aksaram anirdesyam avyaktam paryupasate
sarvatra-gam acintyam ca kuta-stham acalam dhruvam ||12.3||
sanniyamyendriya-gramam sarvatra sama-buddhayah
te prapnuvanti mam eva sarva-bhuta-hite ratah ||12.4||
kleso ‘dhikataras tesam avyaktasakta-cetasam
avyakta hi gatir duhkham dehavadbhir avapyate ||12.5||
Bhagavan Sri Krishna says – He whose mind is fixed on My personal form, always engaged in worshiping Me with great and transcendental faith, is considered by Me to be most perfect.
But those who fully worship the unmanifested, that which lies beyond the perception of the senses, the all-pervading, inconceivable, fixed, and immovable-the impersonal conception of the Absolute Truth-by controlling the various senses and being equally disposed to everyone, such persons, engaged in the welfare of all, at last attain Me.
For those whose minds are attached to the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Supreme, advancement is very troublesome. To make progress in that discipline is always difficult for those who are embodied.
ye tu sarvani karmani mayi sannyasya mat-parah
ananyenaiva yogena mam dhyayanta upasate ||12.6||
tesam aham samuddharta mrtyu-samsara-sagarat
bhavami na cirat partha mayy avesita-cetasam||12.7||
Meaning: For those who worships Me, giving up all their activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation, engaged in devotional service and always meditating upon Me, who have fixed their mind upon Me, O son of Prtha, for them I am the swift deliverer from the Samsara of birth and death.
Hence, Bhagavan clearly explains that both the Jnana Marga and the Bhakti Marga lead to salvation but require great rigour and discipline. However, even Sri Adi Sankara, who propounded the Advaita philosophy (Jnana Marga), composed the famous Bhaja Govindam song emphasising the need for Bhakti.
Finally, in Chapter 18 of the Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavan says there is an easier approach to reach Him:
Man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru
Mam evaisyasi satyam te pratijane priyo ‘si me ||18.65||
Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja
Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami ma sucah ||18.66||
Always think of Me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus, you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.
Relinquish all forms of righteous actions, just surrender unto Me exclusively. I will deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not despair.
Bhagavan gives his assurance to Arjuna that by simply surrendering unto Him exclusively, He guarantees Moksha.
Our Acharyas led a life of austerity with discipline and rigour. They followed the path of Dharma as well as engaged in staunch Bhakti which would have made them eligible for liberation under either of those two Margas (Jnana or Bhakti). Yet, they chose Saranagati (Absolute Surrender) as an approach to gain Moksha. This was mainly to show the path to liberation to the followers out of their compassion as they knew that following the Jnana or the Bhakti Marga which requires rigour and discipline would be extremely difficult for the common folks who are caught in this Samsara.
Before we go into Saranagati, let’s also understand Yoga as a means of attaining liberation. Patanjali begins his treatise by stating the purpose of Yoga sutra by defining the word “yoga” in his second sutra of Book:
योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:
yogah citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ — Yoga Sutras 1.2
This terse definition means ‘Yoga is the restraint (nirodhaḥ) on the modifications (vṛtti) of the mind (citta). Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as ‘Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis)’.
Yoga essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or latent thought, and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself, that is, is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object. Yoga has eight different stages or ‘Angas’ and hence called as the “Ashtanga Yoga”. They are described by Patanjali as: Yama (abstinences), Niyama (observances), Asana (postures), Pranayama (breath control), Pratyahara (sense withdrawal), Dharana (concentration), Dhyana (meditation), and Samadhi (Realisation).
Since it is difficult to practice Yoga to perfection, Bhagavan Sri Krishna offers unconditionally the ultimate option of Saranagati for release from the cycle of Samsara.
There are many ways of performing Saranagati. For example:
- Pranava Mantra: AUM iti Atamanam yunjita (Narayana Upanishad 147.8)
- Dwaya Mantra (as shown by Sri Ramanuja Acharya in Gadya Trayam):
Sriman Narayana charanau Saranam prapadye
Srimathe Narayanaya Namah
Meaning: Sriman Narayana, I surrender at your feet, Sriman Narayana, my obeisance to you. I hold Sriman Narayana’s feet, who is forever associated with the compassionate Goddess Sri Lakshmi, as the object of my surrender.
- Venkatesa Prapatti: Shree Venkatesha charanau Saranam Prapadhye
- Part of Nitya Karma:
Shankha Chakra Gadha paane Dwaraka NilayAcyutah
Govinda Pundarikaksha Rakshamaam Sharanagatam
Meaning: O’ Acyuta, who resides in Dwaraka, holding a Conch (Shanku), Discus (Chakra) and a Mace (Gadha) in his hands (paane), O’ Govinda, who has Lotus-like eyes (Pundarikaksha), please protect me, for I have come to you seeking your refuge.
Saranagati (Prapatti) consists of three steps:
- Firstly, surrender one’s Atma (self) — Recognize that this Atma is not independent but is subservient to the Lord. This is called Svarupa Samarpanam.
- Second, surrender the responsibility for our protection to the Lord — this is called Bhara Samarpanam or Bhara Nyasam.
- Finally, surrender all the fruits of our actions arising out of existence to Bhagavan with humility as if we had no part in it — this is called Phala Samarpanam.
In the first Shloka of Nyasa Daskam, Swami Desikan bring this out nicely – ‘aham, mad rakshana bharah, mad rakshana phalam tatha, na mama, Sripatereva iti, Atmanam nikshipet, budhah’.
Saranagati has five pre-conditions (Angas) that are to be embraced before offering oneself to Lord’s feet (Surrender) to serve Him:
- Accepting those things that are favourable for devotion to God (Anukulya Sankalpam)
- Rejecting those things that hinder righteous actions (Pratikulya varjanam)
- Considering God to be the protector in all circumstances (Maha Vishvasam or Raksishyati Vishvasah)
- Accepting God as one’s maintainer (Goptrtva Varanam)
- Cultivating a humble attitude (Karpanyam)
- Finally, the sixth one is called the ‘Angi’ which is the act of surrendering everything at the Lord’s feet (Atma-niksepam)
The five Angas of Saranagati, namely Anukulya Sankalpam, Pratikulya varjanam, Raksishyati Vishvasah, Goptrata Varanam and Karpanyam should be practiced along with the Angi namely ‘Atmaniksepa’. The Atmaniksepa is the act of Saranagati while the Angas precursors that prepare us and equip us for Saranagati.
Vibheeshana Saranagati – Illustrates all the Saranagati Vidhis
Ramayana is admitted as a practical guide and is considered as the Saranagati Veda in which Vibhishana’s Saranagati to Rama is regarded as the Upanishad. The surrender of Vibhishana illustrates the five ‘Angas’ of Saranagati and the ‘Angi’ the act of surrender as specified in the Saranagati Vidhi.
Vibhishana sought refuge in Rama, rebelling against the authority of his brother, who symbolised evil for him. He requested his brother Ravana to set Sita free and return her safely to Rama and seek forgiveness. He expressed this in quite a number of times.
The Shloka in Ramayana states:
पुरा शरत् सूर्य मरीच्चि सम्निभान् |
नव अग्र पुन्खान् सुदृढान् नृप आत्मजः |
सृजति अमोघान् विशिखान् वधाय ते |
प्रदीयताम् दाशरथाय मैथिली || ६-९-२१
Meaning: Before Rama the prince discharges for your destruction, very strong and unfailing arrows equal to the rays of autumnal sun and provided with new heads and shafts, let Seetha be given away to Rama.
तदेवम् प्रस्तुते कार्ते प्रायश्चित्तमिदम् क्षमम् |
रोचये वीर वैदेही राघवाय प्रदीयताम् || ६-१०-२२
Meaning: O’ brave man! When the omens of evil forces are appearing this way, I would like you to atone for your sins by giving back Seetha to Rama.
This is an illustration of the first Anga namely, Anukulya Sankalpam, acts that are righteous and conducive to the devotion of the Lord.
Ravana’s refusal to heed to Vibhishana’s advice and the latter’s subsequent abandonment of Ravana when he rebukes Vibhishana can be interpreted as the avoidance of evils i.e., Pratikulya Varjanam. This is further elaborated by his rejection of all the possessions including his sons, wife, friends etc. -‘परित्यक्ता मया लंका मित्राणि च धनानि च || ६-१९-५’. The very abandonment of Lanka shows this Anga.
The third Anga, namely Raksishyati Vishvasah or Maha Vishvasah, is indicated in the following verse of Vibhishana – Sarvalokesarnyaya Raghavaya Mahatmane which means Raghava is the refuge to all the living creatures in all the worlds.
The fourth Anga Goptrata varanam consists in Vibhishana’s faith as expressed in the words:
भवद् गतम् हि मे राज्यम् च जीवितम् च सुखानि च | ६-१९-५
Meaning: I place my kingdom, life and happiness at your disposal.
The fifth Anga namely Karpanyam (humility or helplessness) is traced in the following utterances of Vibhishana when he introduced himself to Sugriva and others.
अनुजो रावणस्य अहम् तेन च अस्मि अवमानितः || ६-१९-४
Meaning: I am the younger brother of Ravana and I have been humiliated by him.
The Angi, Atmaniksepa or surrender of the Self is expressed in:
निवेदेअयत माम् क्षिप्रम् राघवाय महात्मने |
सर्व लोक शरण्याय विभीषणम् उपस्थितम् ||६-१७-१७
Meaning: Inform immediately to high soul Rama, the protector of all the worlds, that Vibhishana, has come.
And then Vibhishana says: भवन्तम् सर्व भूतानाम् शरण्यम् शरणम् गतः | ६-१९-४ – I place my kingdom, life and happiness at your disposal.
Lord Rama declares that He is ready to admit into His fold even one who poses himself to be friendly and assures that He would not forget him even though there are defects in him. He states:
मित्र भावेन सम्प्राप्तम् न त्यजेयम् कथंचन |
दोषो यदि अपि तस्य स्यात् सताम् एतद् अगर्हितम् ||६-१८-३
Mitra bhavena sampraptam na tyajeyam katamcana I
Dosho yadyapi tasya syat satam etad agarhitam II
Meaning: I will never give up anybody who approaches Me with friendly attitude even if he is full of defects. This is the way of noble people.
Sri Rama further says:
Sakrdeva prapannaya tavasmi ca yacate |
Abhayam sarva bhutebhyo dadamy etad vratam mama ||18.33||
Meaning: He who seeks refuge in me just once, telling me that ‘I am yours’, I shall give him the assurance of safety against all types of beings. This is my solemn pledge.
Now let’s look at Swami Desikan’s Adaikkala Patthu.
Adaikkala Patthu (also written in Sanskrit by Swami Desikan as ‘Nyasa Dasakam’) elaborates on the approach to Saranagati (absolute surrender to the God), the main approach for the followers of Vishisht Advaitha philosophy. Bhara-nyasam, Bhara-Samarpanam, Prapatti or Saranagati are all acts of surrendering oneself to the service of the Lord and offering the fruits of all actions at the feet of the Lord.
Swami Desikan describes in 10 verses, the approach to Saranagati wherein he surrenders to the Lord Varadaraja of Kancheepuram, whose temple stands on a hill called Hastha Giri (also called Atthi giri in Tamil), and seeks Moksham or Liberation. Let’s now look at the verses:
பத்தி முதலாம் மவதில், பதி எனக்கு கூடாமல்,
எத்திசையும் உழன்றோடி, இளைத்து விழும் காகம் போல்,
முத்திதரு நகர் ஏழில் முக்கியமாம் கச்சி தனில்,
அத்திகிரி அருளாளற்கு, அடைக்கலம் நான் புகுந்தேனே ||1||
Patthi mudhalaam mavathil, pathi yenakku koodamal,
Yethisayum uzhandru odi ilaithu vizhum kakam pol,
Mukthi tharum nagar ezhil mukkiyamaam kachi thanil,
Athigiri arul aalarkku, adaikkalam naan pugundhene ||1||
Meaning: I was not able to practice the path of devotion as there wasn’t any suitable place for Bhakti that allowed me to focus without distraction of the mind. Just like the crow which scurried in eight different directions that got very tired in the end only to come back and fall at the Lord’s feet for mercy, I surrender to the blessed Lord Varadaraja presiding over Hasthagiri, who is in Kancheepuram, which is the greatest blessed towns among the Seven towns that lead to Salvation.
In his opening line, Swami Desikan laments on the lack of a suitable place for praying to the Lord without distraction and single minded devotion. He compares his condition to that of the Crow which scurried frantically in all eight directions seeking refuge from others but in the end fell at Lord’s feet.
Swami Desikan in this verse is referring to the Kakasura’s episode from Srimad Ramayana. Kakasura (Indra’s son in a crow form) committed a blunder by physically hurting and injuring Sita. This enraged Rama attacked Kakasura with a simple grass and ultimately fell at Rama’s feet helplessly. The crow’s father Indra abandoned him and so did the sages as they could not intervene against Rama’s arrow. Kakasura wandered all the worlds and at last surrendered before Rama seeking his forbearance. Valmiki lucidly narrates this in the following Shlokas:
Sa pitra ca parityahtah suraisca samaharscbhih,
trin lokan samparikramya tamova saranam gatah.
satam nipatitam bhumah sapranyah saranagatim,
vadhirhemepi kakutstah krupaya paryapalayat ||
Meaning: That Kakasura, having been disowned by his father the Gods and the Sages, wandered all the three worlds and took refuge in Rama. Kakasura deserved death but was protected because he took refuge in Rama and fell on the ground before Him. Sri Rama forgave him but plucked one of the eyes as a measure to thwart its wickedness by constantly reminding of the incident leading to loss of an eye.
Swami Desikan says after wandering many places, just like the Kakasura, I have come to you, O’Lord Vardaraja seeking your refuge.
In the third line of his Pasruam, Swami Desikan says of the seven holy places – Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya (Haridwar), Kashi, Kanchi, Avanti (Ujjain) and Dwarkavati – that grant Liberation, Kanchipeerum is one of the important ones and hence I am seeking Lord Varadaraja of Kanchi, residing on top of Hastha Giri to grant me refuge.
சடை முடியன், சது முகன் என்று, இவர் முதலாம் தரம் எல்லாம்,
அடைய வினை பயன் ஆகி, அழிந்து விடும் படி கண்டு,
கடி மலராள் பிரியாத, கச்சி நகர் அத்திகிரி,
இடமுடைய அருளாளர், இணை அடிகள் அடைந்தேனே ||2||
Sadai mudiyan, chathur mukanendru, ivar mudhalaam tharam yellam,
Adaya vinai payanagi, azhindu vidum padi kandu,
Kadi malarial piriyatha, kachi nagar athi giri,
Idamudaya arulaalar, inay adikal adainthene ||2||
Meaning: I have seen the boons granted by Shiva, Brahma and other Gods, have a limited span and dilapidate over time. I have seen Shiva and Brahma seek Lord’s refuge to rid of their sins. Knowing this, I surrender to the twin feet of the great Lord of Hasthigiri of Kanchi with whom the Goddess Lakshmi is ever present, and seek his grace to grant me Moksha, the eternal bliss.
Swami Desikan refers to Lord Shiva seeking Lord’s help when he had incurred Brahmahatya dosham when plucked one of Brahma’s five heads. Brahma cursed Shiva for that act which resulted in the skull getting stuck to Shiva’s hand. Shiva was forced to seek alms with that skull in hand. He cursed such that he can get rid of his sin only if the Kabaalam is completely filled-up with food. Shiva went around the world on a pilgrimage to find salvation from the curse by begging for food with Brahma’s skull as the begging bowl. Every time someone filled the vessel with food, it vanished immediately to Shiva’s horror.
Finally, Shiva reached Goddess Lakshmi and appealed to her. She filled the vessel with food ending Shiva’s hunger. However, to Shiva’s dismay, Brahma’s skull still lay fixed on his hand. Shiva did penance and offered His worship to Sriman Narayana. Vishnu answered Shiva’s prayer for salvation and asked him to bathe at Kandiyur Pushkarini. Shiva took a dip in the Pushkarini and with the Lord Kamalanathan’s blessing, the kapalam detached itself from his hand. As a result, the Bhagavan, at this temple, is known as Hara Saapa Vimochana Perumal and the Pushkarini is recognized as Kapaala Thirtham. Hara is another name for Shiva.
Swami Desikan also refers to Brahma losing the Vedas to the two demons, Madhu and Kaitapa. Once Lord Brahma was tired of his creative activities and took some rest. Given his fatigue, Lord Brahma yawned. All the four Vedas slipped out of his open mouth. The two demons Madhu and Kaitapa, who were nearby, stole the Vedas from Brahma. Brahma was powerless in creating life anymore without the knowledge of the Vedas. Brahma approached Lord Narayana who took the form of Hayagreeva (A man’s body with a horse’s head) and slayed the demons and retrieved the Vedas. Since Lord Hayagreeva rescued the Vedas, which are the essence of all knowledge, we worship Hayagreeva as the God of Knowledge.
Swami Desikan emphasises that it is Lord Narayana who is the saviour and protector of all the worlds including that of Brahma and Shiva. Hence, he is approaching Lord Varadaraja of Hastha Giri who is forever with Lakshmi Piratti, who is full of compassion, as the ultimate protector and grantor of Moksha.
Sri Thirumazhisai Azhwar says similarly:
சாக்கியம் கற்றோம், சமணம் கற்றோம், சங்கரனார் ஆக்கிய ஆகமநூல் ஆராய்ந்தோம்; பாக்கியத்தால் வெங்கடகிரியனை சேர்ந்தோம்.
Saakkiyam katrom Samanam katrom, Sankaranaar Aakkiya Agamanool arinthom bhaaghyataal Venkatkariyaaanai Sernthom
Meaning: We learnt Saakkiyam (Jainism), Samanam (Buddhism) and the Agamic Scriptures by Lord Shankara (Shiva) and due to sheer grace, we landed at the feet of Lord Thiruvengadathaan (Lord Venkateshwara).
தந்திரங்கள் வேரின்றித், தமது வழி அழியாது,
மந்திரங்கள் தம்மாலும், மற்றும் உள்ள உரையாலும்,
அந்தரம் கண்டடி பணிவார், அனைவர்க்கும் அருள் புரியும்,
சிந்துர வெற்பிரையவனார், சீலம் அல்லதறியேனே ||3||
Thanthirangal verindri thamathu vazhi azhiyaadhu,
Manthirangal thammalum, mathumulla urayalum,
Antharam kandu adi panivaar, anaivarkkum arul puriyum,
Sinthura verpu iraiyavanaar, seelam allathu ariyene ||3||
Meaning: After understanding the rigours of Jnana Yoga and Bhakti Yoga to reach Him as prescribed in the Vedas, Upanishads and other scriptures, and after appreciating the Saranagati vidhi as well; and seeing the differences between them, many may choose Prapatti to get His grace. Lord Varadaraja of Kanchi, whose unbounded compassion is beyond compare, blesses all of them with his Grace, no matter the path chosen by His devotee.
காகம் இராக்கதன், மன்னர் காதலி கத்திரபந்து,
நாகம் அரண் அயன் முதலா, நாகநகரார் தமக்கும்,
போகம் உயர் வீடு பெறப், பொன் அருள் செய்தமை கண்டு,
நாகமலை நாயகனார் நல்லடி போதடைந்தேனே ||4||
Kaagam irakkadhan, mannar kadali katthira bandhu,
Nagam aran ayan mudhalaa naga nakaraar thamakkum,
Bhogamyuar veedu pera ponnarul cheythamai kandu,
Naga malai nayakanar nalladi podadainthene. ||4||
Meaning: Seeing that that Bhagavan showered aishwaryam and granted moksham to Kaagam (Kakasura), Rakshasas (Vibheeshana), Mannar Kadhali (Draupadi), Kshatrabandhu (a sinner who gets liberated by chanting Govinda), Naagam (can refer to Gajendra or Kaliyan), Aran (Shiva), Ayan (Brahma) and to the Devas etc. I surrendered myself with full faith at the feet of the Lord of Hastha Giri, (the elephant mountain) and attained Him.
உகக்கும் அவை உகந்து, உகவா அனைத்தும் ஒழிந்து, உறவு குணம்
மிக துணிவு பெற உணர்ந்து, வியன் காவலன் என வரித்து,
சகத்தில் ஒரு புகல் இல்லாத், தவம் அறியேன் மதிட்கச்சி,
நகர்க் கருணை நாதனை, நல் அடைக்கலமாய் அடைந்தேனே ||5||
Ugakkum avai ugandhu, ugava anaithum ozhindhu, uravu gunam
Miga thunivu pera unarnthu, viyan kavalen ena varithu,
Jagathil oru pugal illa, thavam ariyen mathitkacchi,
Nagar karunai nathanai, nalla adaikkalamai adainthene. ||5||
Meaning: Choosing those that are conducive to serve the Lord, and leaving out those actions that are hindering the path, Understanding the relation between Jiva and Paramatma with great courage, taking Him as one who protects and guards, and understanding that there is no greater glory than to serve Him, I surrender completely to the merciful Lord of Kanchi.
This Pasuram covers the Shad-vidha Saranagati:
- Anukulya Sankalpam – Ukakkum avai uhandhu
- Pratikulya Varjanam – Ukava anaithum ozhindhu
- Maha Vishvasam – Uravu guna Miga thunivu pera unarnthu
- Goptretva Varanam – viyan kavalan ena varithu
- Karpanyam – Jagathil oru pugal illa thavam ariyen
- Atmaniksepam – Kachi nagar karunai nadhanai nal adaikkalamai adainthene
Bhagavan has Shad Gunas of Jnana, Shakti, Veeryam, Balam, Aishwaryam and Tejas, but above all these are qualities like Karunyam (compassion), Vatsalyam (affection), Sausheelyam (excellent disposition) and Saulabhyam (affability or ease of access) are paramount. Without, compassion all other qualities would not be of much benefit to the devotee and Bhagavan has unbounded compassion. His compassion extends even to His enemies where He gave them time to reform (e.g. Ravana, Kakasura, Shishupala etc.).
அளவுடையார் அடைந்தார்க்கும், அதன் உரையே கொண்டவர்க்கும்,
வளவுரை தந்தவன் அருளே, மன்னிய மாதவத்தோர்க்கும்,
களவொழிவார் எமர் என்ன, இசைந்தவர்க்கும் காவலராம்,
துளவ முடி அருள் வரதர், துவக்கில் எனை வைத்தேனே ||6||
Alavudayar adaintharkkum, athan uraye kondavarkkum,
Valavurai thandhavan arule, manniya mathavathorkkum,
Kalavozhivaar amar yena, isainthavarkkum kavalaraam,
Thulava mudi arul varadar, thuvakkil yenai vaithene. ||6||
Meaning: People with great knowledge of Prapatti surrender on their own (Sva Nishtai); some depend on their Guru who have great understanding of the scriptures and follow the instructions for surrender (Ukti Nishtai); for some the Guru performs the prapatti on their behalf (Acharya Nishtai) and some people benefit from the prapatti of great devotees who surrender to the Lord with a clear understanding that their Atma or Self belongs to the Lord. Such devotees are dear to lord and those people who are with such great devotees gain salvation by their mere association (Bhagavatha Nishtai). I surrendered myself to Varadan who is adorned with Thulasi garland who gives boon of salvation to all those who surrender unto Him by any of the four methods.
Four kinds of Prapatti have been referred in this Pasuram:
- Sva Nishtai – This followed by those with knowledge. Such jnanis perform Prapatthi at the sacred feet of the Lord directly (e.g. Azhwars, Acharyas)
- Ukthi Nishtai: The Mumukshu (One who desires Moksham) repeats the Prapatti words as per Acharyan’s instructions.
- Acharya Nishtai: Acharyan performs prapatti for Mumukshu.
- Bhagavatha Nishtai: The Mumkshu is covered within the prapatthi performed by a Bhagavatha, who is not an Acharyan. (e.g. People who were associated with Koorathazhwan or accompanied Vibheeshana were liberated by mere association or Satsang).
உமதடிகள் அடைகின்றேன் என்று, ஒரு கால் உரைத்தவரை,
அமையும் இனி என்பவர் போல், அஞ்சல் என கரம் வைத்து,
தமது அனைத்தும் அவர் தமக்கு, வழங்கியும் தாம் மிக விளங்கும்,
அமைவுடைய அருளாளர், அடி இணைய அடைந்தேனே ||7||
Umadhu adikal adaikendren yendru oru kaal uraithavarai.
Amayum ini yenbavar pol, anjal yena karam vaithu,
Thamadhu anaithum avar thamakku vazhangiyum thaam miga vilangum,
Amaivudaya arulaalar adiyinayai adainthene. ||7||
Meaning: To the one who committed to surrender at His feet even once, He Kept His hand on them assuring them to be not be afraid, and as He becomes their protector. He gives them all the goodness and wealth and is delighted at that even as His Tejas and Aishwaryam keeps growing. I surrender at the feet of that great Lord Varadaraja of Kanchi.
திண்மை குறையாமைக்கும், நிறைகைக்கும் தீவினையால்,
உண்மை மறவாமைக்கும், உள மதியில் உகக்கைக்கும்,
தன்மை கழியாமைக்கும், தரிக்கைக்கும், தணிகைக்கும்,
வண்மையுடை அருளாளர், வாசகங்கள் மறவேனே ||8||
Thinamai kuryamaikkum, niraikaikkum thee vinayaal,
Unmai maravamaikkum, ula mathiyil ugakkaikkum,
Thanmai kazhiyamaikkum tharikkaikkukm, thanikkaikkum,
Vanmai yudai arulalar vachakangal maravene ||8||
Meaning: I seek His blessing so that my faith is not diminished, and grant me wisdom. I seek his blessing so that I never forget the truth as a result of any sin committed by me. I seek His grace to attain bliss as a result of my surrender, and for continuing with this state of mind without feeling inferior and free from the pains of this Samsara. I would never forget the teachings of the very powerful Lord of Kanchi.
சுரிதி நினைவிவை அறியும், துணிவுடையார் தூ மொழிகள்,
பரிதி மதி ஆசிரியர், பாசுரம் சேர்ந்தருக்கணங்கள்,
கருதி ஒரு தெளிவாளால், கலக்கம் அறுத்தத்திகிரி,
பரிதி மதி நயனமுடைப், பரமன் அடி பணிந்தேனே ||9||
Surithi ninivu ivai ariyum , thunivudayor thoo mozhigal,
Parithimathi aasiriyar pasuram chernthu arukkanangal,
Karuthiyoru theli vaalaal kalakkam aruthathathu kiri,
Parithi mathi nayanamudai paraman adi paninthene. ||9||
Meaning: I learnt from those who knew the Vedas and the Smritis. I gained knowledge from the Divya pasurams of great Saints, and from the wise words of great Sages having brains as bright as the Sun. I cut off my confusions and attained clarity of thought. I surrendered at the feet of the Great Lord, who has Sun and Moon as His eyes, and who is the SarvaLokeswara.
திருமகளும், திருவடிவும், திருவருளும், தெள் அறிவும்,
அறுமை இலாமையும் உறவும், அளப்பரிய அடி அரசும்,
கருமம் அழிப்பளிப்மைப்பும், கலக்கம் இலா வகை நின்ற,
அருள் வரதர் நிலை இலக்கில், அம்பென நான் அமிழ்ந்தேனே ||10||
Thirumagalum, thiruvadivum, thiruvarulum, thellarivum,
Marumai ilamayum uravum, alappariya vadivarasum,
Karumam azhippu alippu amaippum, kalakkam ilaa vagai nindra,
Arul varadar nilai ilakkil, ambena naan amizhndene. ||10||
Meaning: With Goddess Lakshmi, who has a very beautiful and charming form, with divine grace and knowledge, and Who is easily accessible to His devotees and having great association having an immense form, and accomplishing the duty of creation, sustenance and destruction with great precision; and standing with stability sans confusion, Lord Varada with divine grace is my steady aim and I attain and merge with him like an arrow released from a bow.
In the Mundaka Upanishad (2.4), it says:
Pranavo dhanuh sharo hi atma brahma tal lakshyam ucyate
apramattena veddhavyam sharavat tan-mayo bhavet ||
Meaning: Using AUM as the Bow (Dhanuh), the Self (Atma) as the Arrow and fixing the Supreme Being as Target, a seeker should reach Him like an arrow (Atma) to its target (Brahman).
ஆறு பயன் வேறில்லா, அடியவர்கள் அனைவர்க்கும்,
ஆறும் அதன் பயனும் இவை, ஒரு காலும் பலகாலும்,
ஆறு பயன் எனவே கண்டு, அருள் ஆளர் அடியினை மேல்,
கூறிய நற்குண உரைகள், இவை பத்தும் கோதிலவே ||11||
Aaru payan verilla, adiyavarkal anaivarukkum,
Arum athan payanum ivai, oru kaalum pala kaalum,
Aaru payan yenave kandu, arul aalar adiyinai mel,
Kooriya narkunai uraigal, ivai Patthum kothilave. ||11||
For all those devotees who do not have any other method, these ten pasurams would be useful to bring them peace. Even if one surrenders once after understanding that these are going to be useful, they benefit forever. I attained Varada after reciting these ten verses at His Lotus feet. Bhagavan is both Upaayam (path) and Upeyam (goal).
கவி தர்கா சிம்ஹைய கல்யாணி குண ஷாலினே,
ஸ்ரீமதே வேங்கடேசாய வேதாந்த குரவே நாம.
Kavi tarkika simhaya kalyana Guna shaline,
Srimathe Venkatesaya Vedantha gurave nama ||
Meaning: A Lion among poets and philosophers who is endowed with sublime, divine and auspicious qualities. Our obeisance Lord Venkatesha and to the Vedanta Guru.
Swami Desikan Thiruvadigale Saranam
OM NAMO NARAYANAAYA
HARI OM TAT SAT