Chapter 6, Verses 21 to 30 – DHYANA YOGA
In these ten verses of Chapter 6, Bhagavan Shri Krishna explains how to realise eternal bliss by uniting the Self with the Ultimate Consciousness through constant meditation and purification of the mind. He explains the importance of controlling the wavering and unsteady mind by constantly bringing it back under the control of Self while also exercising restraint from seeking sense pleasures. One with a disciplined mind, that is trained in the practice of meditation, devoid of sins and free from passion will perceive the inner Self and becomes pure and satisfied in everlasting bliss. Bhagavan Shri Krishna says that such a perfected Yogi sees Me everywhere and Me in everything. And such a Yogi never forgets Me and he is never forgotten by Me.
6.21 Shloka 6.21
वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश्चलति तत्त्वतः।।6.21।।
Sukham atyantikam yat tad buddhi-grahyam atindriyam ।
Vetti yatra na caivayam sthitas calati tattvatah ।।6.21।।
Meaning: In that joyous state of uniting the Self, one is situated in boundless transcendental happiness and enjoys himself through transcendental senses. Established thus, one never departs from the truth.
After presenting the process such as the sitting place and the diet required while practising dhyana yoga Bhagavan Shri Krishna reveals the results of such endeavours. He places emphasis on this superior level of consciousness where the purified mind that is fully controlled by Yoga becomes completely detached from worldly objectives and achieves Atma tattva or realisation of the Soul. From this point, the Yogi becomes perfected in Yoga and experiences transcendental bliss independent of all contact with the senses. This transcendental bliss is perceived by the spiritual intelligence of the Atma and the Yogi established in this superior level of consciousness and remains fixed in the Atma never digressing from it even for a moment.
6.22 Shloka 6.22
यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं ततः।
यस्मिन्स्थितो न दुःखेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते।।6.22।।
Yam labdhva caparam labham manyate nadhikam tatah ।
Yasmin sthito na dukhena gurunapi vicalyate।।6.22।।
Meaning: Upon attaining such a transcendental state, one never departs from the truth. And on gaining this, there is no greater gain. Being situated in such a position, one is never shaken even in the midst of greatest difficulty.
The transcendental bliss emanates from within one’s own inner self. After one realises the immortal Atma, there is nothing greater to be gained. When one achieves this state of unity of mind with Atma, they can withstand the greatest difficulty or misery and remain unshaken.
6.23 Shloka 6.23
तं विद्याद् दुःखसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम्।
स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्विण्णचेतसा।।6.23।।
Tam vidyad duhkha-samyoga-viyogam yoga-samjnitam ।
Sa niscayena yoktavyo yogo ‘nirvinna-cetasa ।।6.23 ।।
Meaning: You must know that attaining the transcendental state brings about the end to miseries from
material contact. Hence, one should engage in the practice of Dhyana Yoga with unwavering determination and faith.
The final stage of perfection is called trance, or Samadhi. When one’s mind is completely restrained from material activities by practice of yoga, characterised by one’s ability to see the self by the pure mind, they can relish and rejoice in the Self. In that joyous state, one experiences boundless transcendental happiness and eternal bliss.
6.24 Shloka 6.24
मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः।।6.24।।
Sankalpa-prabhavan kamams tyaktva sarvan asesatah ।
Manasaivendriya-gramam viniyamya samantatah ।।6.24।।
Meaning: One should abandon all material desires completely and without exception and thus control all the senses from all sides by focusing the mind.
Bhagavan Shri Krishna now gives advice on how to abandon ‘sankalpa-prabhavan’ meaning ‘material desires of the world’. In the mind of a person they are many forms of worldly objects yearned for. The word ‘sarvan’ means all desires in every sphere of endeavour. The word ‘asesatah’ means complete cessation of all desires.
The material thoughts are detrimental and are obstacles in the path of furtherance of meditation and are the root causes of misery and suffering. The word ‘manasaiva’ means by the sole strength of the mind and only with the power of mind is restraint possible. One should, therefore, exercise mind control and contemplate their thoughts on the Supreme and develop a healthy aversion to engaging the body and the mind in sense desires. Spiritual intelligence is the main instrument for restraining the mind as well as gaining control over the senses which will assist in spiritual progress.
6.25 Shloka 6.25
शनैः शनैरुपरमेद् बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया।
आत्मसंस्थं मनः कृत्वा न किञ्चिदपि चिन्तयेत्।।6.25।।
Sanaih sanair uparamed buddhya dhrti-grhitaya ।
Atma-samstham manah krtva na kincid api cintayet ।।6.25।।
Meaning: Gradually, and step by step, one should become situated in trance (Samadhi) through constant meditation and spiritual intelligence by fixing the mind upon the Self with full conviction, thinking of nothing else.
Lord Krishna uses the words ‘sanaih sanair’ meaning gradually and progressively one who is able to completely withdraw their senses from all external distractions and fixes the mind on the Atma or Soul with firm and resolute determination, they will in due course of time become established in Dhyana Yoga and attain communion with the Ultimate Consciousness.
Desires are of a two-fold nature. ‘Sparsha’ which arise from the impulses of the physical body or and ‘Sankalpa’ which arise from the impulses of the mind. With consistent efforts, it is possible to abandon the desires of the mind by constant meditation. It is also possible to resist the pleasure of the senses by developing an attitude of indifference or detachment. It is necessary to neutralise the senses comprehensively and systematically from external sense objects. This should be undertaken gradually with determination and a resolute will. In due course of time the mind will be weaned from all things except the eternal Atma or Soul and will be absorbed exclusively within it, and then one thinks of nothing else.
6.26 Shloka 6.26
यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम्।
ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत्।।6.26।।
Yato yato niscalati manas cancalam asthiram ।
Tatas tato niyamyaitad atmany eva vasam nayet ।।6.26।।
Meaning: To whatever and from wherever the restless, wavering and unsteady mind wanders, this mind should be restrained and brought back under the control of the Self.
Wherever the mind turns in pursuit of any external sense object, it should be restrained and brought back under the control of the Atma and made to exclusively reside there. What if a controlled mind becomes suddenly tempestuous and restless? Bhagavan Shri Krishna answers that it must immediately be rescued back from whatever sense object caused it to deviate and this exercise of restraint should be done again and again until the mind becomes fixed in the Atma or Soul, which is the Supreme goal.
6.27 Shloka 6.27
प्रशान्तमनसं ह्येनं योगिनं सुखमुत्तमम्।
उपैति शान्तरजसं ब्रह्मभूतमकल्मषम्।।6.27।।
Prasanta-manasam hy enam yoginam sukham uttamam ।
Upaiti santa-rajasam brahma-bhutam akalmasam ।।6.27।।
Meaning: The Yogi whose mind is fixed on Me, who is free from passion having a tranquil mind and who is devoid of sins attains Self-Realisation and experiences Supreme bliss.
Bhagavan Shri Krishna uses the words ‘brahma-bhutam’ meaning endowed with the realisation of the Brahman. After the Yogi perfects the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness and has withdrawn the mind from sense objects and secured it firmly in the Atma; the mind becomes serene and achieves Supreme bliss.
Bhagavan Shri Krishna speaks of two attributes: one is ‘santa-rajasam’ or free from passion and the second is ‘akalmasam’ or free from sins. Such a person is ‘brahma-bhutam’ or endowed with the realisation of the Brahman or the Supreme Consciousness.
6.28 Shloka 6.28
युञ्जन्नेवं सदाऽऽत्मानं योगी विगतकल्मषः।
सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते।।6.28।।
Yunjann evam sadatmanam yogi vigata-kalmasah ।
Sukhena brahma-samsparsam atyantam sukham asnute ।।6.28।।
Meaning: Consistently in this way, where the Yogi unites the Self with the Ultimate Consciousness, he is freed from all material contamination, and achieves the highest state of happiness by being in constant touch with the Supreme Consciousness.
Bhagavan Shri Krishna speaks of the boundless happiness experienced by such a Yogi, who has perfected the science of uniting the Self with the Ultimate Consciousness. Such a Yogi’s Karma gets dissolved or simply evaporates with continuous meditation on the Atma and achieves Moksa or liberation from the material existence and is thus, blessed with the eternal bliss.
Bhagavan Shri Krishna speaks with the words ‘brahma-samsparsam’ which means communion with the ParamAtma, the Supreme Soul and Ultimate Consciousness. A Yogi becomes liberated from the material existence through such a communion. The words ‘atyantam’ means endless, ‘sukham’ means ecstasy and ‘asnute’ means easily. The Yogi who constantly contemplates on the Atma reaches perfection easily.
6.29 Shloka 6.29
सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि।
ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्वत्र समदर्शनः।।6.29।।
Sarva-bhuta-stham atmanam sarva-bhutani catmani ।
Iksate yoga-yuktatma sarvatra sama-darsanah ।।6.29।।
Meaning: A true yogi observes Me in all beings, and also sees every being in Me. Indeed, the self-realised man sees Me everywhere.
The Atma resides in all beings and is part of the omnipresent and omniscient Supreme Lord. All creatures also exist within the Supreme Lord as well as in the Atma. One who perceives this, sees the Supreme Lord equally in all things from a blade of grass to the Supreme Brahman. The Supreme Lord abides in equal measure in all beings along with the Atma and is known as ParamAtma, the Supreme Soul.
The words ‘sarvatra sama-darsana’ means equal vision everywhere. This means realising the Atma or Soul that abides in oneself and abides in other beings is of the same transcendental essence in all beings equally.
In the Munkdaka Upanishad, Shloka 3.1, it refers to two birds on a tree – one is ParamAtma and the other the JivAtma:
Dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vriksham parishasvajate | Tayoranyah pippalam svadvat-anashnan-anyo abhicakashiti ||
Meaning: Two birds, one representing the ParamAtma and the other the JivAtma, one watching and shining brilliantly, while the other enjoying the fruits of the Karma. One of the birds (the individual atomic soul) is eating the fruit of the tree (the sense gratification afforded by the material body), and the other bird (the Super Soul) is simply watching His friend. Thus, it illustrates the different nature of the Super Soul that stays away from the enjoyment the Jiva goes after.
When the Yogi is able to control the mind and restrain from pursuing his material desires, the Jivatma, through constant meditation, is united with the Paramatma, thus achieving eternal bliss.
6.30 Shloka 6.30
यो मां पश्यति सर्वत्र सर्वं च मयि पश्यति।
तस्याहं न प्रणश्यामि स च मे न प्रणश्यति।।6.30।।
Yo mam pasyati sarvatra sarvam ca mayi pasyati ।
Tasyaham na pranasyami sa ca me na pranasyati ।।6.30।।
Meaning: For one who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me, I am never forgotten by them and they are never forgotten by Me.
Now Bhagavan Shri Krishna reveals the results of perceiving Him everywhere. For such a person never forgets the Lord nor the Lord forgets such a person.
The Garuda Purana states that One who always perceives the Supreme Lord equally within all beings will always possess unshakeable devotion and for such a person the Supreme Lord Himself will personally maintain them.
जय श्री कृष्णा – Jai Shri Krishna!
Hari Om Tat Sat